ESIA 1878 Mochongoi Molhud BCG SR 2275 (2024)

MOCHONGOI SETTLEMENT SCHEME

DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, HOUSING AND

URBAN DEVELOPMENT (LHUD)

INTEGRATED ENVIRO NMENTAL AND SOCIAL

IMPACT ASSESsem*nT (IESIA) STUDY REPORT

FOR T SHOEC PIRAOLPOIMSEPDA DCETG AZETTEMENT OF OL-ARABEL FOREST FOR MOCHONGOI SETTLEMENT SCHEME IN MOCHONGOI WARD; BARINGO SOUTH SUB COUNTY; BARINGO COUNTY.

PREPARED BY: LEAD SECURITIES LIMITED

EIA/EA FIRM OF EXPERTS FINAL REPORT FINAL FINAL REPORT FINAL REG. NO. 7306, 0715526534

SUBMITTED BY: DEPARTMENT OF LAND, HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (LHUD) BARINGO COUNTY GOVERNMENT (BCG) P.O. BOX 53-30400 KABARNET, KENYA

SUBMITTED TO: THE DIRECTOR GENERAL, NATIONAL ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY, NAIROBI, KENYA

FINAL REPORT FINAL REPORT FINAL JUNE, 2021

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Mochongoi Settlement Scheme is located in Ol Arabel Forest in Mochongoi Ward, Baringo South Sub County, Baringo County. The scheme was established in the year 1989 by Presidential Directive to resettle people displaced from their lands to create space for government projects including Kirandich dam, schools, churches, the airstrip and the Government Training Institute (GTI).

However the due process of the degazettement of the forest for the establishment of the settlement was not undertaken at that time. This led to the development of the informal Mochongoi settlement causing encroachment and land ownership problems. Part of the settlement scheme was degazetted and some land owners were issued with land titles while others have allotment letters (Block I). However majority of people in the settlement scheme do not have land ownership documents.

On Tuesday 23rd February 2016, the people of Mochongoi Settlement Scheme petition the National Assembly through their MP Hon. Grace Kipchoim for degazettement of Ol Arabel Forest for Mochongoi Settlement Scheme and issuance of titles pursuant to Article 119 (1) of the Constitution of Kenya (2010) and Standing Order 219. The National Assembly pursuant to standing Order 227 referred the Petition to the Department Committee on Lands for processing and preparation of a report. The committee on Lands visited Baringo County and particularly Mochongoi settlement scheme to prepare a response report on the petition. The National Assembly Committee on Lands presented the findings in a report dated 2nd March 2017 with recommendation for Environment and Social Impact Assessment as a requirement for degazettement of Ol Arabel Forest for Mochongoi Settlement Scheme. The County Government of Baringo was tasked to facilitate the Integrated Environment and Social Impact Assessment (IESIA) Study.

The County Government of Baringo through the Department of Land, Housing and Urban Development (LHUD) intends to regularize occupied lands in the county which have not been degazetted from forest for settlement schemes particularly Mochongoi Settlement Scheme including Block I (107) — Mochongoi, Block II (110) — Kaimalel and Block III (111) — Kimoriot. Mochongoi settlement scheme is an informal settlement requiring proper

iii physical planning. This can be achieved through degazettement of the section Ol Arabel forest already occupied as a human settlement.

EMCA (Amendment), 2015 advocates for a clean and healthy environment in everywhere any time for all citizens. This therefore calls upon developers/investors/settlers/famers to maintain the same as they undertake development activities. Maintenance of clean and good environment should not be one-time event but a continuous process.

The degazettement of Ol Arabel Forest for Mochongoi Settlement Scheme is among projects listed under schedule II of the Environmental Management and Co-ordination (Amendment) Act (EMCA, 2015) requiring IESIA. According to Environmental Management and Coordination (Strategic Assessment, Integrated Impact Assessment and Audit) Regulations, 2018, Section 14 (1) an Integrated Environmental Impact Assessment study shall be conducted for all high-risk projects tabulated in the Second Schedule of the Environmental Management and Coordination (Amendment) Act 2015.

Lead Securities Limited was contracted by the County Government of Baringo to conduct Integrated Environment and Social Impact Assessment (IESIA) for the proposed degazettement of Ol Arabel Forest for Mochongoi Settlement Scheme as part of the requirement for degazettement.

In any development initiative, the focus is to improve the economic well-being of an area in terms of increased land use rate, increased cash flow and levies to County Governments. In the same line these development should always consider the environmental well-being of the current population and the generation to come and thus a balance is attained between the two hence termed as sustainable development.

The IESIA study approach involved: 1) Preparation and submission of TOR for IESIA study to NEMA HQs (11/10/2019); 2) Approval of TOR for IESIA study by NEMA HQs (16/10/2019); 3) Launching of IESIA study (22/11/2019); 4) Planning and Mobilization for IESIA (12/12/2019); 5) identification of stakeholders; 6) leaders consultative meetings; 7) key informant interviews; 8) social economic survey; 9) open public consultative meeting (Barazas); 10) administrative of structured questionnaires 11) review of RIMs/Survey Maps;

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12) inventory of public utilities; 13) Delineation of Boundary/Cut Line; 14) preparation of IESIA draft report; 15) Presentation of draft report to stakeholders for review, comments, suggestions and recommendations (18/11/2020) (validation #1); 16) Presentation of draft report to communities in the settlement scheme for review, comments, suggestions and recommendations (16-18/12/2020) (validation #2); 17) Preparation of final IESIA study report; 18) Submission of IESIA study report to NEMA HQs.

It was established that: 1. The people have settled in Mochongoi Settlement Scheme and practiced crop and livestock production and other activities.

2. Mochongoi settlement scheme has been surveyed and consists of 5672 parcels of land in 37 Maps (―RIMs‖) covering a total acreage of 10,056.36 hectares (Ha). Out of these, 1409 have title deeds, 2426 have allotment letters and 3246 do not have allotment letters. Some of the land owners have paid SFT funds.

3. The National and County Government have invested in the settlement scheme including administrative boundaries comprising Two (2) Locations (Kimoriot and Mochongoi) and Five (5) Sub Locations (Kimoriot, Kamailel, Mochongoi, Kapkechir and Kapnarok); many public utilities such as primary schools, secondary schools, health facilities, water projects, infrastructure (roads, electricity) among others as detailed in section 5.4 in this report.

4. Mochongoi settlement scheme land cover at the time of study consisted of 15.3% tree cover; 4.7% Shrub cover; 8.7% grass land; 71% crop land; 0.2% bare areas and 0.1% built areas. Combining tree and shrub covers gives a total of 20% vegetation cover. This is above the 10% vegetation cover recommended under the Constitution of Kenya 2010 and Forest Conservation and Management Act No 34 of 2016.

5. Due to lack of clear boundary/cutline between the forest and the settlement scheme, there has been encroachment beyond into community reserve forest, catchment and riparian areas.

The proposed degazettement of Ol Arabel Forest for Mochongoi Settlement Scheme has the immediate to long-term benefits (positive impacts) including: 1) Enables issuance of title deeds as legal land ownership documents (collateral for loan and acquisition of medical cover v etc); 2) Encourage/promote individual environmental responsibility; 3) Reduction of human- wildlife conflicts due to clear boundary between settlement scheme forest and wildlife areas/corridors; 4) Land tenure security; 5) Increased land value; 6) Establishment of permanent residences; 7) Promote social stability and security of the rural community; 8) Improved agricultural production (increased/improved crop and livestock production); 9) Promotion of food security from crop and livestock production; 10) Promoting business opportunities from agro-based industries including agro-processing and value addition; 11) Improved public health (people will construct toilets thereby reducing OD); 12) Increased income to rural community (Income generation from commercial farming and agribusiness); 13) Reduce conflicts with neighbors especially land disputes; 14) Enhance proper land development and management; 15) Encourages forest protection due to clear boundary between the forest and settlement; 16) Enables compensation for crop damages by wildlife; 17) Promotes rural employment creation; 18) Reduces Rural Poverty; 19) Improves Livelihood and living standards of the rural community; 20) Improves infrastructure (roads, electricity, water etcetera); 21) Increases Generation of Revenue to the Government; 22) Promote Economic Growth and Development among many other direct and indirect benefits.

However there are adverse effects (negative impacts) including: 1) Reduction in forest cover due to deforestation, logging, and charcoal burning among others); 2) Soil erosion from crop and livestock production (over-cultivation and overstocking/ overgrazing) and other human activities leading to landscape degradation, water pollution and siltation of water pans and dams; 3) Encourages increase in population leading to increased pressure on natural resources; 4) Degradation of cultural and recreation sites; 5) Encroachment into wildlife areas and corridors leading to wildlife habitat degradation, poaching and wildlife migration; 6) Human wildlife conflict leading to crop damage, loss of livestock and human life; 7) Encroachment of catchment areas and riparian zones leading to catchment degradation; 8) Loss of biodiversity; 9) Water shortage from unreliable rainfall due to water catchment degradation especially reduced vegetation cover; 10) Climate change that leads to extreme weather condition including drought, famine and floods; 11) Water pollution from agrochemicals used for crop and livestock production; 12) Increased forest fires from agricultural activities such as burning to clear farms, charcoal burning and even cigarettes; 13) Solid and liquid waste Problems (Environment/Water Pollution); 14) Increased Water Demand putting pressure on existing water sources and rationing; 15) Increased Power

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Demand putting pressure on existing power sources and rationing; 16) Insecurity from Neighbouring Communities (Pokot) occasioned by cattle rustling particularly at the Northern parts of Block I including Kapkechir and Tuyotich.

Mitigation measures have been proposed to the above adverse effects (negative impacts). These mitigation measures vary from immediate to long term. The Immediate On-site (In- situ) Interventions include: a) Establish a boundary/cutline between the settlement scheme and forest, wildlife areas/corridors. This will discourage encroachment into the forest/wildlife areas and restrict movement across the boundary of human, livestock and wildlife to avoid human-wildlife, livestock-wildlife and crop-wildlife conflicts. This will also enable compensation for crop damage, livestock loss and loss of human life from wildlife especially elephants, monkeys, hyenas and baboons among others.

b) KWS need to consider putting up an electric fence to restrict wildlife from entering the settlement scheme and causing havoc including crop damage, loss of livestock and human life. In addition, KWS to strengthen commitment on reducing poaching.

c) Establishing tree nurseries, planting trees, cover crops and tree crops. There is need for reforestation of degraded areas and implementing the 10% tree planting and vegetation cover policy. Ol Arabel CFA and KFS need to mainstream tree planting and rehabilitation of degraded areas within Mochongoi settlement scheme by encouraging the community to take lead role emulating the few examples of residents who have embraced the 10% vegetation cover policy and commercial tree planting.

d) Good crop and livestock husbandry including crop rotation, terracing, mulching, controlled use of agro-chemicals for weeding, pest control by using prescribed amounts of agro-chemicals and safe use. There is need for cultivation away from riparian zones and steep slopes.

e) Practise sustainable crop and livestock production by embracing Climate Smart Agriculture (CSA) within Mochongoi Settlement Scheme.

f) Soil and Water Conservation measures including construction of conservation dams, gabions among others. There is need to mainstream soil and water conservation in every agricultural activity in Mochongoi Settlement Scheme. vii

g) Controlling animal stocks to manageable stocks (avoid overstocking/overgrazing). There is need to practise intensive livestock production as opposed to the traditional livestock keeping (nomadism) trespassing every available land including the forest.

h) Safeguarding protected areas including water catchment, riparian zones, reserved forests, wetlands among others. There is need to reduce and or eliminate illegal logging and charcoal burning in the protected areas.

i) Increasing development and use of renewable energy where possible and applicable for instance solar energy in water supply and agro-processing and value addition e.g. drying process; heating among other processes and activities.

j) Community environment civil education for awareness and collective responsibility on the concept of conservation and sustainability.

k) Ol Arabel CFA, KFS and WRA to establish catchment/riparian management committees in the entire Mochongoi settlement scheme. They need to establish guidelines for the management of catchment/riparian/protected areas as well as enforcement and in compliance with the National and County policies, legislation, regulation, rules and guidelines.

l) County Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries to promote good crop and livestock husbandry in the entire Mochongoi settlement scheme.

The long term, progressive and continuous national/county/stakeholder interventions include: a) Establish a system of protected areas or areas where special measures need to be taken to conserve biological diversity;

b) Develop, where necessary, guidelines for the selection, establishment and management of protected areas or areas where special measures need to be taken to conserve biological diversity;

c) Regulate or manage biological resources important for the conservation of biological diversity whether within or outside protected areas with a view to ensuring their conservation and sustainable use;

viii d) Promote the protection of ecosystems, natural habitats and the maintenance of viable populations of species in natural surroundings; e) Promote environmentally sound and sustainable development in areas adjacent to protected areas with a view to furthering protection of these areas; f) Rehabilitate and restore degraded ecosystems and promote the recovery of threatened species inter alia through the development and implementation of plans or other management strategies; g) Establish or maintain means to regulate, manage or control the risks associated with the use and release of living modified organisms resulting from biotechnology which are likely to have adverse environmental impacts that could affect the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, taking also into account the risks to human health; h) Prevent, control or eradicate the introduction of alien species which threaten ecosystems, habitats or species; i) Endeavour to provide the conditions needed for compatibility between present uses and the conservation of biological diversity and the sustainable use of its components; j) Subject to applicable policies/legislation/regulation/rules (National and County) to respect, preserve and maintain knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and local communities embodying traditional lifestyles relevant for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity and promote their wider application with the approval and involvement of the holders of such knowledge, innovations and practices and encourage the equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the utilization of such knowledge, innovations and practices; k) Develop or maintain necessary legislation and/or other regulatory provisions at County and National level for the protection of threatened species and populations; l) County Government to cooperate with Ol Arabel CFA and KFS in providing technical, financial and other support for in-situ (on-farm) conservation outlined in subparagraphs (a) to (k) for rehabilitation of degraded areas and to increase the vegetation cover to 10% or more in Mochongoi Settlement Scheme.

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Conclusion: There are three alternatives (available options) for Mochongoi settlement scheme: (a) degazettement; (b) relocation and (c) status quo (No alternative). The comparison of alternatives established the practicable environmental alternative option for Mochongoi Settlement Scheme. The Degazettement Alternative (Option) is the Practical Option. a) Degazettement Alternative (Option): This alternative implies that the petition succeeds and the land continues to be used as agricultural land and settlement. The people of Mochongoi Settlement Scheme will enjoy the fruits of the land ownership as detailed in section 6.2. This will pave way for issuance of title deeds. Kenya Forest Service (KFS) and Community Forest Association (CFA) will be able to manage the remaining section of the forest. In addition, KWS will be able to manage the wildlife and contain within the forested areas and corridors reducing human-wildlife conflict. It will also create harmony and good neighbourliness as envisaged in Participatory Forest Management. This alternative implies degazettement of approximately 10,056.36 hectares (Ha) of forest land to agricultural land, providing a long term solution to land ownership issues and community partnership on conservation of Ol Arabel Forest. However, there are several negative impacts as indicated in section 6.3. Mitigation measures have been proposed and shall be used by the proponent (people of Mochongoi Settlement Scheme) to address these adverse effects.

b) Relocating Alternative (Option): This scenario envisages the decision that community has occupied the land illegally and has no ownership rights. Under such circ*mstances there are two approaches: the humane resettlement and forceful eviction. The humane resettlement will involve identification of alternative land and resettling the people there. Although this alternative may be the best bargain for conservation of the forest, however the cost would be very high. Relocation means that the Government has to look for another land for resettlement of all the people in Mochongoi settlement scheme. Looking for the land to accommodate 5672 Households (Homesteads) and completing the transfer of land ownership or lease agreement may take a long period although there is no guarantee that the land would be available. At present the County and National Government does not have an alternative land. The forceful eviction will result in resistance and bad blood. The long term impact if this approach implemented is negative as there will be no

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sustainability of programmes where community support is weak. Cases of arsons are likely to be regularly and cost of restoration could be very high.

c) The No Action Alternative (Option): The no action alternative occurs when it is difficult to take any of the above alternatives. Under this alternative, the status quo remains. The settlement scheme will remain as it is currently. Community living in the settlement will not be able to invest on the land and might result to more land degradation due to uncertainty and unwillingness to invest in areas you are not sure of status of tomorrow. This is not the best option as it will encourage further encroachment since there is no clear boundary/cutline between the settlement scheme and the forest.

The threat (risk) to the proposed degazettement of Ol Arabel Forest for Mochongoi Settlement Scheme is manageable and all current and emergent environmental issues shall be responded immediately and as they arise. The people of Mochongoi Settlement Scheme were willing and able to address the mitigation measures to negative impacts as well as emergent environmental issues given in this report.

Recommendation 1. The Degazettement Alternative (Option) is the Practical Option.

2. The people of Mochongoi Settlement Scheme to ensure adherence to the mitigation measures for potential negative impacts stated in chapter Seven, Eight and the Environmental Management Programme (EMP).

3. The community (land owners) to take adequate measures to conserve and protect the reserved forest, catchment areas, riparian areas and other protected areas [MANDATORY]. County Government, CFA, KFS, WRA, KWS and other stakeholders to assist and enforce where necessary/applicable/practicable the implementation of the conservation of protected areas.

4. The community (land owners) to practise good crop and livestock husbandry for soil and water conservation. County Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries (CMoALF) through Ward Agricultural Extension Services to assist and enforce the implementation of soil and water conservation in Mochongoi Settlement

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TABLE OF CONTENT DECLARATION ...... Error! Bookmark not defined. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ...... iii TABLE OF CONTENT ...... xii LIST OF TABLES, FIGURES AND ABREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS ...... xvii LIST OF TABLES...... xvii LIST OF FIGURES ...... xvii LIST OF ABREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS ...... xviii CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION ...... 1 1.1. Background information ...... 1 1.2 Objective/Purpose of the IESIA Study ...... 3 1.2.1 Main Objective ...... 3 1.2.2 Specific Objective ...... 3 1.2.3 The Purpose ...... 3 1.3 Terms of References for the IESIA Study ...... 4 CHAPTER TWO: BASE LINE INFORMATION ...... 5 2.1 Baringo County Location ...... 5 2.2 Physiographic and Natural Conditions ...... 5 2.2.1 Topography ...... 6 2.2.2 Ecological Conditions ...... 6 2.2.3 Climatic conditions...... 6 2.3 Administrative Units ...... 7 2.3.1 Administrative Units ...... 7 2.3.2Political Units ...... 8 2.4 Demographic Features ...... 8 2.4.1Population size and composition ...... 8 2.4.2 Population density and distribution ...... 10 2.4.3 Population Projection for Special Age Groups ...... 10 2.4.4 Population of persons with disabilities ...... 11 2.4.5 Demographic Dividend Potential ...... 12 2.5 Human Development Approach ...... 13 2.5.1 Human Development Indicators ...... 13 2.5.2 Youth Development Index (YDI) ...... 13 2.5.3 Gender Development Index (GDI) and Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) ...... 14 2.5.4 Poverty levels ...... 14 2.6 Infrastructure Development ...... 14 2.6.1 Roads and Rail Network ...... 14 2.6.2 Information, Communication and Technology ...... 17 2.6.3 Energy access ...... 17 2.6.4 Housing Types...... 17 2.6.4.1 Housing Typologies ...... 17 2.6.4.2 Housing Materials ...... 18 2.7 Land And Land Use ...... 18 2.7.1 Land ownership categories / classification ...... 18 2.7.1.1 Community Land ...... 19 2.7.1.2 Private Land Ownership ...... 19 2.7.1.3 Public Land ...... 19 2.7.2 Mean holding size ...... 20 2.7.3 Percentage of land with title deeds ...... 20 2.7.4 Incidence of landlessness ...... 20 2.7.5 Settlement patterns ...... 21 2.8 Employment...... 21 2.8.1 Wage-earners ...... 21 2.8.2 Self-employed ...... 21 2.8.3 Labour force ...... 21 2.8.4 Unemployment levels ...... 22 2.9 Irrigation Infrastructure and Schemes ...... 22 2.9.1 Irrigation schemes and potential (small/large scale) ...... 22 2.10 Crop, Livestock, Fish Production and Value Addition ...... 22 2.10.1 Main crops produced ...... 22 xii

2.10.2 Average farm sizes ...... 23 2.10.3 Main storage facilities ...... 23 2.10.4 Agricultural extension, training, research and information services ...... 23 2.10.5 Ranching in Baringo County ...... 24 2.10.6 Apiculture/Beekeeping ...... 24 2.11 Oil and Other Mineral Resources ...... 25 2.11.1 Mineral and Oil potential...... 25 2.11.2 Ongoing mining and extraction activities ...... 25 2.12 Tourism and Wildlife ...... 26 2.12.1 Main tourist attraction, national parks and reserves ...... 26 2.13 Industry and Trade ...... 27 2.13.1 Markets ...... 27 2.13.2 Industrial Parks (Including Jua Kali sheds) ...... 27 2.13.3 Major Industries ...... 28 2.13.4 Types and number of businesses ...... 29 2.13.5 Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME) ...... 29 2.14 The Blue Economy (Including Fisheries) ...... 30 2.14.1 Aquaculture ...... 30 2.14.2 Main Fishing Activities, Type of Fish Produced and Landing sites ...... 30 2.15 Forestry, Agro-Forestry and Value Addition ...... 31 2.15.1 Main Forest types and size of forests (Gazetted and Un-gazetted forests) ...... 31 2.15.2 Main Forest products ...... 31 2.15.3 Value chain development of forestry products ...... 31 2.16 Financial Services ...... 32 2.16.1 Distribution and coverage of financial services by sub-county ...... 32 2.17 Environment and Climate Change ...... 32 2.17.1 Major degraded areas / hotspots and major contributions to environmental degradation ...... 32 2.17.2 Environmental threats ...... 33 2.17.3 Solid waste management facilities...... 34 2.18 Water and Sanitation ...... 34 2.18.1 Water resources ...... 34 2.18.2 Water supply schemes ...... 35 2.18.3 Water sources and access ...... 35 2.18.4 Water management ...... 36 2.18.5 Sanitation ...... 36 CHAPTER THREE: POLICY, LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK ...... 37 3.1. Back Ground and General Overview ...... 37 3.2. Fundamental Principles of Environmental Laws ...... 38 3.3. International Conventions and Treaties ...... 40 3.3.1 The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance ...... 40 3.3.2. The Rio Declaration and Agenda 21 ...... 40 3.3.3. The World Commission on Environment and Development (The Brundtland Commission of 1987) ...... 41 3.3.4. United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (UNCBD) ...... 41 3.3.5 Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) ...... 45 3.3.6 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) ...... 46 3.3.7 United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), 1994 ...... 49 3.4. Relevant Government Environmental Policies and Sessional Papers ...... 50 3.4.1. Land Policy ...... 50 3.4.2. Environment and Development Policy (Sessional Paper No.6 of 1999)...... 51 3.4.3. Private Sector Development Strategy 2006-2010 ...... 52 3.4.4. Vision 2030 ...... 52 3.4.5. National Poverty Eradication Plan (NPEP) ...... 52 3.4.6. The Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (1999) on Environment and Development (PRSP) ...... 53 3.4.7 Forest Policy 2014 ...... 53 3.5. Land Tenure, Land Use and Environmental Legislation ...... 58 3.5.1. Constitution of Kenya ...... 58 3.5.2. National Land Commission Act No. 28 of 2016 ...... 59 3.5.3. The Land Act, 2012 (Legal Notice 6) ...... 61 3.5.4 Land Registration Act, 2012 ...... 62 3.5.5 The Community Land Act No. 27 of 2016 ...... 64 3.5.6. The Physical and Land Use Planning Act No. 13 of 2019 ...... 66 3.5.7 The Energy Act No. 1 of 2019 ...... 69 3.5.8 Agriculture, Fisheries and Food Authority Act No. 13 of 2013 ...... 71 xiii

3.5.9. Water Act No. 43 of 2016 (Chapter 372 of Laws of Kenya) ...... 72 3.5.10. Public Health Act Chapter 242 of the Laws of Kenya ...... 73 3.5.11 The Wildlife Conservation and Management Act No. 47 of 2013 ...... 74 3.5.12 The Climate Change Act No. 11 of 2016 ...... 77 3.5.13 The Forest Conservation and Management Act No 34 of 2016 ...... 79 3.5.14 Forests (Participation in Sustainable Forest Management) Rules, 2009 ...... 84 3.5.15. Fire Risk Reduction Rules, Legal Notice No. 59, 2007 ...... 85 3.5.16 Environmental Management and Coordination (Amendment) Act, 2015 ...... 86 3.5.16.1 Environmental Management and Co-ordination (Conservation of Biological Diversity and Resources, Access to Genetic Resources and Benefit Sharing) Regulations No. 47 of 2006...... 87 3.5.16.2 Waste Management Regulations, 2006 (Legal Notice No.121) ...... 88 3.5.16.3 The Environmental Management and Co-ordination (Wetlands, River Banks, Lake Shores and Sea Shore Management) Regulations, 2009 ...... 88 3.5.16.4 Water Quality Regulations, 2006, Legal Notice No. 120 ...... 89 3.5.16.5 Environmental Management and Co-ordination (Conservation of Biological Diversity and Resources, Access to Genetic Resources and Benefit Sharing) Regulations No. 47 of 2006...... 93 3.5.16.6 The Environmental Management and Coordination (Strategic Assessment, Integrated Impact Assessment and Audit) Regulations, 2018 ...... 94 3.6. Institutional and Administrative Framework ...... 102 CHAPTER FOUR: METHODOLOGY AND PUBLIC PARTICIPATION ...... 105 4.1 Introduction ...... 105 4.2 Preparation and Approval of TOR for IESIA ...... 105 4.3 Launching of IESIA ...... 105 4.4 Planning and Mobilization for IESIA ...... 105 4.5 Stakeholder Consultations ...... 106 4.6 Community/Stakeholders Consultative Process ...... 106 4.6.1 Identification of stakeholders ...... 106 4.6.2 Leaders consultative meetings ...... 107 4.6.3 Key informant interviews (KIIs) ...... 108 4.6.4 Social Economic Survey...... 108 4.6.5 Open public consultation meeting ...... 108 4.6.6 Review of RIMs ...... 109 4.6.7 Delineation of Boundary/Cut Line ...... 109 4.6.8 Inventory of Public Utilities ...... 110 4.6.9 Administration of Structured Questionnaires ...... 110 4.6.9.1 Summary of Questionnaires Response (Block I: Mochongoi)...... 111 4.6.9.2 Summary of Questionnaires Response (Block II: Kamailel) ...... 115 4.6.9.3 Summary of Questionnaires Response (Block III: Kimoriot) ...... 119 4.6.9.4 Responses of community management practices on riparian zones and water catchment ...... 122 4.6.9.5 Responses of types of trees planted by Mochongoi residents ...... 122 4.6.9.6 Responses of types of grass planted by Mochongoi residents ...... 122 4.6.9.7 Responses of types of wildlife in Mochongoi...... 123 4.6.9.8 Responses of set aside protected areas in Mochongoi ...... 123 4.6.9.9 Responses on Complaints and how they can be mitigated ...... 124 CHAPTER FIVE: DESCRIPTION OF SETTLEMENT SCHEME ...... 125 5.1 The Location of Mochongoi Settlement Scheme ...... 125 5.2 Establishment of Mochongoi Settlement Scheme ...... 126 5.3 Current Mochongoi Settlement Scheme ...... 126 5.4 Public Utilities ...... 127 5.4.1 Block I: Mochongoi...... 127 5.4.1.1 Existing Public Utilities ...... 127 5.4.1.2 Proposed Public Utilities ...... 128 5.4.2 Block II: Kamailel ...... 128 5.4.2.1 Existing Public Utilities ...... 128 5.4.2.2 Proposed Public Utilities ...... 128 5.4.3 Block III: Kimoriot ...... 129 5.4.3.1 Existing Public Utilities ...... 129 5.4.3.2 Proposed Public Utilities ...... 129 5.5 Dominant Tree and Grass Species ...... 129 5.5.1 Exotic trees ...... 129 5.5.2 Indigenous ...... 130 5.5.3 Grass planted ...... 130 5.6 Wildlife ...... 130 xiv

5.7 Protected areas ...... 131 5.7.1 Block 1 ...... 131 5.7.2 Block 2 ...... 131 5.7.3 Block 3 ...... 132 5.8 Community management practices on riparian zones and water catchment ...... 132 5.9. Land Cover ...... 132 CHAPTER SIX: POTENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS ...... 134 6.1. Overview ...... 134 6.2. Positive Impacts ...... 134 6.3. Negative Impacts ...... 135 CHAPTER SEVEN: ANALYSIS OF PROJECT ALTERNATIVES ...... 137 7.1 Alternatives ...... 137 7.2 The Proposed degazettement of Ol Arabel Forest for Mochongoi Settlement Scheme Alternative ...... 137 7.3 Relocating settled community to an alternative Site ...... 138 7.4 The No Action Alternative ...... 138 CHAPTER EIGHT: PROPOSED MITIGATION MEASURES ...... 139 8.1 Introduction ...... 139 8.2 Mitigation for Reduction in Vegetation (Forest/Bush/Grass) Cover ...... 139 8.3 Mitigation for Catchment Degradation ...... 139 8.4 Mitigation for Loss of Biodiversity ...... 140 8.5 Mitigation for Soil Erosion, Landscape Degradation and Siltation ...... 141 8.6 Mitigation for Degradation of Cultural and Recreation Sites ...... 143 8.7 Mitigation for Wildlife Habitat Degradation and Human-Wild life Conflict ...... 143 8.8 Mitigation for Reduced Rainfall and Climate Change ...... 144 8.9 Mitigation for Forest Fires ...... 145 8.10 Mitigation for Solid and Liquid waste Problems (Environment/Water Pollution) ...... 146 8.11 Mitigation for Increased Water Demand ...... 146 8.12 Mitigation for Increased Power Demand ...... 147 8.13 Mitigation for Insecurity from Neighbouring Communities ...... 147 8.14 Immediate On-site (In-situ) Interventions ...... 148 8.15 Long Term, Progressive and Continuous National/County/Stakeholder Interventions ...... 150 CHAPTER NINE: INTEGRATED ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL MANAGEMENT PROGRAMME (IESMP) ...... 158 9.1. Overview ...... 158 9.2. Desktop Preparation Phase ...... 158 9.3. Settlement Phase ...... 160 CHAPTER TEN: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION ...... 169 10.1. Conclusion ...... 169 10.2. Community Concerns on Reserve Land ...... 171 10.3. Recommendation ...... 171 ANNEX A: ANNEXES/APPENDICES ...... 173 ANNEX A1: APPROVAL OF TOR BY NEMA FOR IESIA STUDY ...... 173 ANNEX A2: LAUNCHING (NOTICE; BANNER AND MEETING) ...... 175 ANNEX A3: PUBLIC BARAZA/STAKEHOLDERS; NOTICES; INVITATIONS AND PROGRAMMES ...... 178 ANNEX A4: MINUTES ...... 187 A4 (a): Planning Meeting ...... 187 A4 (c): Public Baraza (Block III) ...... 204 A4 (e): Meeting with Manager Ol Arabel Forest ...... 232 A4 (f): Meeting with In Charge of KWS Mutitu Station ...... 234 A4 (g): Meeting with Senior Warden-Baringo County ...... 236 A4 (h): Presentation of Draft IESIA Study Report to Stakeholders ...... 237 A4 (i): Presentation of Draft IESIA Study Report to Community (Block III: Kimoriot) ...... 244 A4 (j): Presentation of Draft IESIA Study Report to Community (Block II: Kamailel) ...... 253 A4 (k): Presentation of Draft IESIA Study Report to Community (Block I: Mochongoi) ...... 261 xv

ANNEX A5: PUBLIC UTILITIES ...... 273 A5 (a): Block I Public Utilities ...... 273 A5 (b): Block II Public Utilities ...... 289 A5 (c): Block III Public Utilities ...... 297 ANNEX A6: SAMPLE PHOTOS ...... 305 ANNEX A7: QUESTIONNAIRES; MAPS AND OTHER DOCUMENTS ...... 312

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LIST OF TABLES, FIGURES AND ABREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS LIST OF TABLES Table 1: Electoral wards and Area by Sub-county and Ward Table 2: National government administrative units Table 3: Administrative and Electoral Units in Baringo County Table 4: Population Projections by Age Cohort Table 5: Urban and Rural projected populations, 2018 Table 6: Population density and distribution in various constituencies Table 7: Population of persons with disabilities Table 8: Baringo County Demographic Dividend Indicators Table 9: County Road network Table 10: Roads Coverage by Type & Distance Table 11: Airstrips and airfields in Baringo County Table 12: Labour Force in the County Table 13: Mining and Extraction Activities per Sub County Table 14: No. of Markets constructed, enterprises & jobs created and total number of beneficiaries Table 15: No of business by category Table 16: Causes of Environmental Degradation in Baringo County Table 17: Environmental Threats/Hazards in Baringo County Table 18: Solid waste facilities Table 19: Water sources for different Households in Baringo County (Kenya population and Housing Census Report, 2009) Table 20: Quality Standards for Sources of Domestic Water Table 21: Monitoring for Discharge of Treated Effluent into the Environment Table 22: Proposed Mitigation Measures against Negative Impacts Table 23: IESMP for Desktop Preparation Phase Table 24: Environmental Management Programme for the Settlement Phase

LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1: Map of Kenya Showing Baringo County Figure 2: Map of Baringo County Showing Neighbouring Counties Figure 3: Percentage of Respondents by Gender (Block I) Figure 4: Percentage of Respondents on Years as Resident (Block I) Figure 5: Percentage of Respondents on Human Wildlife Conflict (Block I) Figure 6: Percentage of Respondents on Wildlife involved in Conflict (Block I) Figure 7: Percentage of Respondents on Community Intervention on Climate Change (Block I) Figure 8: Percentage of Respondents on Benefits of Degazettement (Block I) Figure 9: Percentage of Respondents on Negative Impacts of Degazettement (Block I) Figure 10: Percentage of Respondents on Mitigation Measures (Block I) Figure 11: Percentage of Respondents by Gender (Block II) Figure 12: Percentage of Respondents on Years as Resident (Block II) Figure 13: Percentage of Respondents on Human Wildlife Conflict (Block II) Figure 14: Percentage of Respondents on Wildlife involved in Conflict (Block II) Figure 15: Percentage of Respondents on Community Intervention on Climate Change (Block II) Figure 16: Percentage of Respondents on Benefits of Degazettement (Block II) Figure 17: Percentage of Respondents on Negative Impacts of Degazettement (Block II) Figure 18: Percentage of Respondents on Mitigation Measures (Block II) Figure 19: Percentage of Respondents by Gender (Block III) Figure 20: Percentage of Respondents on Years as Resident (Block III) Figure 21: Percentage of Respondents on Human Wildlife Conflict (Block III) Figure 22: Percentage of Respondents on Wildlife involved in Conflict (Block III) Figure 23: Percentage of Respondents on Community Intervention on Climate Change (Block III) Figure 24: Percentage of Respondents on Benefits of Degazettement (Block III)

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Figure 25: Percentage of Respondents on Negative Impacts of Degazettement (Block III) Figure 26: Percentage of Respondents on Mitigation Measures (Block III) Figure 27: Satellite Map Showing Location of Mochongoi Settlement Scheme Figure 28: Map of Mochongoi Settlement Scheme Showing Land Cover

LIST OF ABREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS ACC: Assistant County Commissioner ASAL Arid and Semi-Arid Land BCG Baringo County Government CA: Conservation Agriculture CBD: Convention on Biological Diversity CBFFM: Community Based Forest Fire Management CBO: Community Based Organization CEC: County Executive Committees CECs: County Environment Committees CFA: Community Forest Association CIDP: County Integrated Development Plan CLTS: Community Led Total Sanitation CMoALF: County Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock Development and Fisheries CMoENTW: County Ministry of Environment, Natural Resources, Tourism and Wildlife Management CMoLHUD: County Ministry of Land, Housing and Urban Development CO: Chief Officer COP: Conference of the Parties CSA: Climate Smart Agriculture ECD Early Childhood Development EMCA Environmental Management and Coordination Act ER Environmental Report ERS: Economic Recovery Strategy for Wealth and Employment Creation ESA Environmental and Social Audit ESP: Economic Stimulus Programme EWC: Endorois Welfare Council FBO: Faith Based Organizations FMS: Fire Management Strategy GDI: Gender Development Index GDP: Gross Domestic Product GEM: Gender Empowerment Measure GPS: Global Positioning System GTI: Government Training Institute HDI: Human Development Index IESIA: Integrated Environment and Social Impact Assessment IESMP: Integrated Environment and Social Management Programme IMCE: Kenya‘s Inter-Ministerial Committee on Environment KALRO Kenya Agricultural, Livestock Research Organization KFS: Kenya Forest Service KII: Key informant interviews KNBS: Kenya National Bureau of Statistics KNPHC: National Housing and Population Census KWS: Kenya Wildlife Services LAPPSET: Lamu Port-South Sudan-Ethiopia-Transport Corridor

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LHUD: Department of Land, Housing and Urban Development MAPs: Medicinal and Aromatic Plants MCA: Member of County Assembly MEAs: Multilateral Environmental Agreements MP: Member of Parliament MSME: Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises MT Metric Tone MT Metric Tone NEAP: National Environment Action Plan Committee NEC: National Environmental Council NECC: National Environment Complaints Committee, NEMA : National Environment Management Authority NET National Environmental Tribunal NET: National Environmental Tribunal NGO: Non-Governmental Organizations NLP: National Land Policy NPEP: National Poverty Eradication Plan OD: Open Defecation PCBs: Polychlorinated biphenyls PCDDs: Dioxins and furans (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins) PCDFs: Polychlorinated dibenzofurans PH: County Department of Public Health POPs: Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants PRSP: Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (1999) on Environment and Development RIM: Registry Index Map SCA: Sub County Administrator SERC: Standards and Enforcement Review Committee SERC: Standards and Enforcement Review Committee SFM: Sustainable Forest Management SHG: Self Help Group TOR: Terms of Reference UNCBD: United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity UNCCD: United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification UNCED: United Nations Conference on the Environment and Development UNFCCC: United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change WA: Ward Administrator WRA: Water Resources Authority WSSD: World Summit for Sustainable Development YDI: Youth Development Index

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CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1.1. Background information Mochongoi Settlement Scheme is located in Mochongoi Ward, Baringo South Sub County, Baringo County. The scheme was established in the year 1989 after the former retired His Excellency President Daniel Arap Moi gave directive that people who had surrendered their land for the construction of Kirandich dam, schools, churches, the airstrip and the Government Training Institute (GTI) to be allocated land at Mochongoi. The settlement was set up in the Ol-Arabel Forest Reserve on the eastern escarpment of the Rift-Valley, North of Nyahururu. The Forest reserve consists of upper catchment of the Ol- Arabel River. However the due process of the degazettement of the forest for the establishment of the settlement was not undertaken at that time. This led to the development of the informal Mochongoi settlement causing encroachment and land ownership problems. Part of the settlement scheme was degazetted and some land owners were issued with land titles while others have allotment letters. The scheme has three blocks which have not been degazetted namely: Block I (107) – Mochongoi Block II (110) – Kamailel Block III (111) – Kimoriot The three blocks constitute a total acreage of 10,056.36 hectares (Ha) and that some land owners have paid SFT funds. Current status of the three blocks is as summarized below: i) Total number of parcels = 5672 ii) Total number of parcels with letters of offer = 2426 iii) Total number of parcels without letters of offer = 3246 iv) Total number of parcels with title deeds = 1409 v) Total number of maps covering the scheme = 37 On Tuesday 23rd February 2016, the people of Mochongoi Settlement Scheme petition the National Assembly through their MP Hon. Grace Kipchoim for degazettement of Ol Arabel Forest for Mochongoi Settlement Scheme and issuance of titles pursuant to Article 119 (1) of the Constitution of Kenya (2010) and Standing Order 219. The National Assembly pursuant to standing Order 227 referred the Petition to the Department Committee on Lands for processing and preparation of a report. The committee on Lands visited Baringo County and particularly Mochongoi settlement scheme to prepare a response report on the petition. The

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National Assembly Committee on Lands presented the findings in a report dated 2nd March 2017 with recommendation for Environment and Social Impact Assessment as a requirement for degazettement of Ol Arabel Forest for Mochongoi Settlement Scheme. The County Government of Baringo was tasked to facilitate the Integrated Environment and Social Impact Assessment (IESIA) Study. The County Government of Baringo through the Department of Land, Housing and Urban Development (LHUD) intends to regularize occupied lands in the county which have not been degazetted from forest for settlement schemes particularly Mochongoi Settlement Scheme including Block I (107) — Mochongoi, Block II (110) — Kaimalel and Block III (111) — Kimoriot. Mochongoi settlement scheme is an informal settlement requiring proper physical planning. The encroachment and landownership disputes/conflict need to be addressed. This can be achieved through degazettement of the section Ol Arabel forest already occupied as a human settlement. The degazettement of Ol Arabel Forest for Mochongoi Settlement Scheme is among projects listed under schedule II of the Environmental Management and Co-ordination (Amendment) Act (EMCA, 2015) requiring IESIA. According to Environmental Management and Coordination (Strategic Assessment, Integrated Impact Assessment and Audit) Regulations, 2018, Section 14 (1) an Integrated Environmental Impact Assessment study shall be conducted for all high-risk projects tabulated in the Second Schedule of the Environmental Management and Coordination (Amendment) Act 2015. The proposed project activity, De- gazettement of Ol Arabel Forest for Mochongoi Settlement Scheme falls under the category of high-risk project because it will result in: i. Major changes in land use. ii. Designation of new townships. iii. Large scale resettlement schemes. iv. Establishment or expansion of recreational areas in National Parks, National reserves, Forest and nature reserves and any areas designated as environmentally sensitive. v. Clearance of forest areas. vi. Excisions of gazette (forest for whatever purposes). The proponent (Baringo County Government: Department of Land, Housing and Urban Development) contracted Lead Securities to undertake an Integrated Environmental and Social Impact Assessment (IESIA) study to establish possible impacts of the proposed degazettement of Ol Arabel Forest for Mochongoi Settlement Scheme on the natural and socio-economic environment.

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1.2 Objective/Purpose of the IESIA Study 1.2.1 Main Objective The main objective is to undertake an Integrated Environmental and Social Impact Assessment (IESIA) study for the degazettement of part of Ol Arabel Forest Land for the Mochongoi Settlement Scheme in Mochongoi Ward, Baringo South Sub County, Baringo County. This is in accordance with Environmental Management and Coordination (Amendment) Act 2015 and regulation 2018 taking into account environmental, social, cultural, economic, legal, safety and health considerations. An IESIA ensures that the proposed settlement is compatible with sustainable environmental planning and management a prerequisite towards ensuring sustainable development of natural resources (Article 69 of the Constitution).

1.2.2 Specific Objective The specific objective is to prepare a detailed Integrated Environmental and Social Impact Assessment study for the proposed degazettement of Ol Arabel Forest for Mochongoi Settlement Scheme in accordance with the Environmental Management and Coordination (Amendment) Act (EMCA, 2015) and Environmental Management and Coordination (Strategic Assessment, Integrated Impact Assessment and Audit) Regulations, 2018 for issuance of titles.

1.2.3 The Purpose The Integrated Environmental and Social Impact Assessment (IESIA) study will provide the County Government of Baringo and the National Government Agencies (NEMA) and other key stakeholders with sufficient information to justify, on environmental grounds, the acceptance, modification or rejection of the degazettement of Ol Arabel Forest for Mochongoi Settlement Scheme for the purpose of issuance of titles. It will also provide the basis for guiding subsequent actions, which will ensure that the settlement is carried out considering the environmental issues identified.

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1.3 Terms of References for the IESIA Study The Integrated Environment and Social Impact Assessment (IESIA) was undertaken in accordance with Environmental Management and Coordination (Amendment) Act 2015 and the Environmental Management and Coordination (Strategic Assessment, Integrated Impact Assessment and Audit) Regulations, 2018 taking into account environmental, social, cultural, economic, legal, safety and health considerations as follows: 1. Collect baseline socio economic and environmental baseline characteristics data of the settlement scheme and potential impact expected from the degazettement. 2. Review existing policy, legal and institutional framework and environmental management as relates to the degazettement. 3. Identify, contact, plan and undertake participatory stakeholders and public consultation as may be appropriate, holding one or several public meeting (s) with the affected parties and communities including the youth, persons with disability and other vulnerable groups in a venue convenient and accessible, and a language understandable by the various stakeholders to explain the project and its effects and to receive their oral or written comments; 4. Identify and analyze at least three (3) alternatives to the proposed project, which are the proposed degazettement, the no-degazettement option and one other proposed alternative. 5. A description of the environment likely to be affected by degazettement; 6. The environmental impacts analysis of the project including direct, indirect, cumulative, irreversible, short-term and long-term impacts anticipated, social analysis, economic analysis and cultural analysis; 7. Provision of an action plan for the prevention of foreseeable accidents, occupational diseases and management of hazardous activities in the course of carrying out activities of the settlement scheme; 8. Propose mitigation measures to be taken during and after the implementation of the degazettement and settlement; and cost estimates for all the identified negative impacts of the degazettement and settlement. 9. Integration of climate change vulnerability assessment, adaptation and mitigation actions; 10. An environmental management plan proposing the measures for eliminating, minimizing or mitigating adverse impacts on the environment; including the cost, time frame and responsibility to implement the measures; 11. An indication of whether the degazettement is likely to affect the environment in any other country, the available alternatives and mitigation measures; and 12. Gather and provide any other data and information that will be useful or may be required for IESIA by NEMA.

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CHAPTER TWO: BASE LINE INFORMATION 2.1 Baringo County Location Baringo County is one of the 47 counties in Kenya. It is situated in the Rift Valley region. It borders Turkana and Samburu counties to the north, Laikipia to the east, Nakuru and Kericho to the south, Uasin Gishu to the southwest, and Elgeyo-Marakwet and West Pokot to the west. It is located between longitudes 35 30‘ and 36 30‘ East and between latitudes 0 10‘ South and 1 40‘. The Equator cuts across the county at the southern part. Baringo covers an area of 11,015.3km2 of which 165km2 is covered by surface water including Lake Baringo, Lake Bogoria and Lake Kamnarok.

Source: Baringo County CIDP (2018-2022) Figure 2: Map of Baringo County Figure 1: Map of Kenya Showing Baringo County Showing Neighbouring Counties

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2.2 Physiographic and Natural Conditions 2.2.1 Topography One of the prominent features is the Kerio Valley, which is situated on the western part of the county. In the eastern part of the county near Lake Baringo and Bogoria is the Loboi Plain covered mainly by the latchstring salt-impregnated silts and deposits. The Tugen Hills form a conspicuous topographic feature in the county. The trend of the hills is north-south and mainly consists of volcanic rocks. The hills have steep slopes with prominent gullies. On the eastern and western parts of the hills are escarpments. Rivers on the hills flow in very deep gorges. The floor of the Rift Valley owes its origin to the tectonic and volcanic disturbances, which have dislocated surfaces, forming separate ridges. The troughs of the rift that have a north-south alignment are occupied by Lake Baringo and Bogoria, which occupy 164 Km2. Lake Bogoria is particularly spectacular because it is one of the few hot, salt water lakes in the world and is the breeding ground for flamingoes. Lake Baringo is a fresh water lake which is the home of crocodiles and hippopotamus. Lake Kamnarok an ox-bow lake covers 1 Sq. Km, and a home of elephants and crocodiles. It is also located in the larger Rimoi game reserve which occupies Baringo and Elgeyo Marakwet counties. 2.2.2 Ecological Conditions Exotic forests exist in the county but the known indigenous forests are found in Kabarnet, Kabartonjo, Tenges, Lembus, Saimo, Sacho, Ol’ Arabel and Eldama Ravine. The main exotic species are: Grevellea Rabusta, Cuppressus lusitanic and Eucalyptus saligna. Prosopis juliflora also exists in Marigat area. Kipng‘ochoch forest in Sacho, one of the 10 forest blocks under Tenges forest station, is an example of a well conserved indigenous forest where visitors and nature lovers could view the entire Lake Baringo basin, fluorspar mines, Laikipia ranges, Elgeyo escarpment, Kerio Valley and other touristic attractions that the county offers. The county is classified as arid and semi-arid. Most parts of East Pokot, Baringo Central, Baringo South, Eldama Ravine, Mogotio sub-counties are arid and semi-arid except for Koibatek sub-county, which is in a highland zone. Rainfall ranges between 300 mm and 500 mm, decreasing from south to north. 2.2.3 Climatic conditions The rainfall varies from 1,000mm to 1,500mm in the highlands to 600mm per annum in the lowlands. Due to their varied altitudes, the sub-counties receive different levels of rainfall. Koibatek sub-county receives the highest amount of rainfall. The lowland sub-counties of Mogotio, East Pokot and Eldama Ravine receive relatively low amounts. The temperatures range from a minimum of 10°C to a maximum of 35°C in different parts of the county.

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Average wind speed is 2m/s and the humidity is low. The climate of Baringo varies from humid high-lands to arid lowlands while some regions are between these extremes.

2.3 Administrative Units 2.3.1 Administrative Units Baringo county government administrative units is comprised of six sub counties and 30 wards, with the largest sub county being Tiaty with an area of 4540 square kilometers and the smallest being Baringo Central with 588.52 square kilometres. The wards are also vast in sizes with the largest ward being Tirioko ward with 1102.68 square kilometers and the smallest being Ravine ward being 33.55 square kilometers. The County Government Act established the Village Administrative Units as the lowest administrative units in the Counties but are yet to be created in Baringo County. Table 1: Electoral wards and Area by Sub-county and Ward Sub County Area in Km2 Electoral Wards Area in Km2 Eldama Ravine 1703.50 Barwessa 475.5 Saimo Kipsaraman 85.60 Saimo-Soi 542 Kabartonjo 126.70 Bartabwa 473.50 Tiaty 4540.48 Tirioko 1102.68 Kolowa 752.55 Ribkwo 871.49 Silale 335.36 Tangulbei 591.25 Loiyamorock 597.80 Churo-Amaya 289.35 Mogotio 1303.87 Mogotio 287.53 Emining 529.21 Kisanana 487.13 Baringo south 1985.11 Mukutani 534.90 Marigat 682.71 Ilchamus 180.70 Mochongoi 586.80 Eldama ravine 953.82 Lembus 142.89 Ravine 33.55 Lembus-Kwen 178.01 Koibatek 254.37 Lembus-Perkera 130.20 Mumberes/ Majimazuri 214.80 Baringo Central 588.52 Kabarnet 165.68 Sacho 105.98 Tenges 123.94 Kapropita 96.35 Ewalel-Chapchap 96.57 Source: CIDP Baringo, 2018-2022

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Table 2: National government administrative units Sub County No. of No. of No. Sub- No. Villages Divisions Locations Locations Baringo 4 21 53 284 central Eldama 4 14 44 355 Ravine Marigat 3 18 37 348 Mogotio 5 23 50 216 Koibatek 4 18 36 225 East Pokot 7 27 61 568 Baringo 27 121 281 1996 County Source: CIDP Baringo, 2018-2022

2.3.2Political Units Table 3: Administrative and Electoral Units in Baringo County Sub-County Area Km2 Electoral Wards Locations Baringo South 1,678 4 17 Mogotio 1,315 3 24 Eldama Ravine 1,003 6 16 Baringo Central 800 5 21 Eldama Ravine 1,704 5 14 Tiaty 4,517 7 24 Total 11,015 30 116

Source: CIDP Baringo, 2018-2022

2.4 Demographic Features 2.4.1Population size and composition According to the population and housing census conducted in 2009, the population of Baringo County was 555,561, it was projected to be 728,720 in 2017. Further projection indicates that the population will increase to 754,014 in 2018; 779,546 in 2019; 804,346 in 2020; 829, 346 in 2021; and 853,515 by 2022 using inter-censural population growth rate for the county. The data for the 2019 National Housing and Population Census (KNPHC) is currently underway.

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Table 4: Population Projections by Age Cohort Year 2009 2018 2020 2022 Age Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total 0- 4 46,950 44,569 91,519 63,721 60,490 124,211 67,975 64,527 132,502 72,130 68,472 140,602 5-9 47,011 44,752 91,763 63,804 60,738 124,542 68,063 64,792 132,855 72,224 68,753 140,977 10-14 44,302 41,504 85,806 60,127 56,330 116,457 64,141 60,090 124,231 68,062 63,763 131,825 15- 19 34,292 30,641 64,933 46,542 41,586 88,128 49,648 44,362 94,011 52,683 47,074 99,757 20- 24 23,109 24,818 47,927 31,364 33,683 65,047 33,457 35,932 69,389 35,503 38,128 73,631 25- 29 18,006 20,843 38,849 24,438 28,288 52,726 26,069 30,177 56,246 27,663 32,021 59,684 30- 34 13,797 15,047 28,844 18,725 20,422 39,147 19,975 21,785 41,761 21,196 23,117 44,313 35- 39 11,655 12,447 24,102 15,818 16,893 32,712 16,874 18,021 34,895 17,906 19,122 37,028 40- 44 8,457 9,106 17,563 11,478 12,359 23,837 12,244 13,184 25,428 12,993 13,990 26,982 45- 49 7,794 8,182 15,976 10,578 11,105 21,683 11,284 11,846 23,130 11,974 12,570 24,544 50- 54 6,225 6,024 12,249 8,449 8,176 16,624 9,013 8,722 17,734 9,564 9,255 18,818 55- 59 4,829 4,510 9,339 6,554 6,121 12,675 6,991 6,530 13,521 7,419 6,929 14,348 60- 64 4,257 3,996 8,253 5,778 5,423 11,201 6,163 5,785 11,949 6,540 6,139 12,679 65- 69 2,508 2,656 5,164 3,404 3,605 7,009 3,631 3,845 7,476 3,853 4,080 7,934 70- 74 2,145 2,498 4,643 2,911 3,390 6,302 3,106 3,617 6,722 3,295 3,838 7,133 75- 79 1,393 1,613 3,006 1,891 2,189 4,080 2,017 2,335 4,352 2,140 2,478 4,618 80+ 2,351 3,274 5,625 3,191 4,444 7,634 3,404 4,740 8,144 3,612 5,030 8,642 Total 279,081 276,480 555,561 378,772 375,242 754,014 404,056 400,290 804,346 428,755 424,760 853,515

The County of Baringo is majorly rural with 89 per cent of its citizens inhabiting in rural areas and another 11 per cent by average living in the key urban centres majorly in Baringo Central with 32 percent, Eldama Ravine with 25 per cent, and 9%, 6% for Marigat and Mogotio respectively. Baringo East (Tiaty) and Eldama Ravine had no counted populations in urban centres as at 2009 census but a dozen of the centres in this sub-counties are now inhabited by a sizeable population. There is an expected increase in population migrations to six key urban centres in the county namely; Kabarnet, Marigat, Mogotio, Eldama Ravine, Kabartonjo and Chemolingot which are currently the Sub-county headquarters.

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Table 5: Urban and Rural projected populations, 2018 Sub-County Rural Urban Males Females Total % Males Females Total % Baringo Central 36747 38171 74918 68 16711 18957 35668 32 Koibatek 53921 53372 107293 75 17527 18058 35585 25 East Pokot 94854 85912 180766 100 0 0 0 0 Eldama Ravine 62741 64550 127292 100 0 0 0 0 Mogotio 38727 38799 77526 94 2544 2664 5208 6 Marigat 50352 50034 100386 91 4648 4725 9374 9 Total 337342 330838 668180 89 41430 44404 85834 11 Source: CIDP Baringo, 2018-2022

2.4.2 Population density and distribution Table 6: Population density and distribution in various constituencies Constituency Male Female Total Area in sq. Density Households Kms Tiaty 94854 85912 180766 4540 40 28896 Baringo Central 53458 57128 110586 589 188 26320 Eldama Ravine 62741 64550 127292 1704 75 26783 Baringo South 55000 54759 109759 1985 55 12432 Mogotio 41271 41463 82734 1304 63 17093 Eldama Ravine 71448 71430 142878 954 150 38649 Total 378772 375242 754014 11075 68 150174

2.4.3 Population Projection for Special Age Groups The special age groups are categorized as follows:

Pre-school going age-under 5: The total population in this age brackets is projected to grow from 144,790 in 2017 to 149,816 in 2018 and rise to 154,889 in 2019. Therefore there is need to increase immunization coverage and early childhood development centers (ECD) in respect to the growth rate.

Primary school going age (6-13): The total populations in this age brackets is projected to raise to 193,488 in 2018 from 186,997 in2017 and further raise to 200,040 in 2019.this population puts pressure on existing primary schools and thus there is need for county and national government to collaborate in increasing the number of primary schools and teachers to balance the pupil-teacher ratio.

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Secondary school going age (14-17): The total populations is expected to raise from 76,744 in2017 to 79,408 in 2018 and further increase to 82,097 in 2019.the national and county governments need to plan for more secondary schools to manage enrolments and teachers.

Youth Population (15-35): The population of this age bracket is expected to raise from 247,433in 2017 to 256,022 in 2018 and further increase to 264,691 in 2019.this is the skill acquiring age bracket thus there is need to plan for vocational trainings centers to cater for this increasing population

Female reproductive age (15-49): The population of this age group is expected to raise from158,824 in 2017 to 164,337 in 2018 further raise to 169,901 in 2019.this implies that there is need to increase resources towards improving maternal and child health care and nutritional standards. There is also need to intensify reproductive health and family planning education in order to curb the population growth rates.

Labor force (15-64): The county labor force was 351,577 in 2017 and expected to raise to363,780 in 2018 and further to 376,098 in 2019. This implies that there is need to create more opportunities for employment.

The Aged population (65 and above): The population of this age bracket was 24,185 in 2017,25,025 in 2018 and projected to be 25,872 in 2019. This calls for redirecting of resources during the plan period to cater for provision of health services, home care and pensions for those employed

2.4.4 Population of persons with disabilities The number of persons living with disabilities in Baringo is calculated to be 3.1% of the population translating to 17,121 persons (2009-Kenya Population and Housing Census analytical report on persons with disability-Baringo County. The numbers are categorized by type of disability and gender. These numbers are projected to be around 26,300 persons by 2022 in relation to the increase in the county population. More surveys needs to be done to ascertain the exactly number, specific age categories and disability types in the County.

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Table 7: Population of persons with disabilities Type of Male (%) No. Female (%) No. Disability Visual 27.3 2334 24 2057 Hearing 19.2 1639 19.3 1651 Speech 7.3 623 8.5 730 physical 21.6 1845 25.9 2223 Mental 8.4 719 9.4 802 Self-care 9.7 828 6.8 581 Others 6.4 549 6.3 541 Total 8537 8584 Source: CIDP Baringo, 2018-2022

2.4.5 Demographic Dividend Potential The demographic dividend refers to the accelerated economic development that a country can attain by slowing down the pace of population growth while at the same time making strategic investments in the health, education, economic, and governance sectors. It results to accelerated economic growth that a county can experience as a result of declining fertility levels that occasion a reduction in the dependency levels and an increase in the proportion of the population in the working ages (15-64 years). With fewer dependents to support, those in the working ages will have more savings that can be invested for the economic growth of the county thereby improving the wellbeing of the county‘s residents. However, the attainment of a demographic dividend is not automatic. As the fertility levels decline, the county needs to make simultaneous strategic investments in the health, education, economic and governance sectors. The aim of these investments is to ensure that as the county‘s children and youth get older, they remain healthy, are able to access education and training opportunities, as they enter the labour force they get income and employment opportunities, they invest for their life in old age, and they participate fully in governance matters affecting the county.

Table 1-8 shows the key demographic indicators for Baringo County. Total population for Baringo county according to 2009 census was 555,441.In 2017 the population was projected to be 676,301 people up from almost 626,451 people in 2014.This figure is projected to reach about 0.8 and 0.9 million people in 2022 and 2030 respectively assuming that the county fertility rate continue declining over the years to reach 2.1 children per woman in the year 2075. By the end of the MPT III period in 2022,the fertility is expected to decline to 4.9 from the this average of 5.3 in 2014,before declining further to 4.5 in 2030 based on fertility rate of 5.6 as per 2009 census results. Given the decline in fertility, the proportion of children below the age15 is expected to decline from 43.1% in 2014 to 40.9% in 2017 to 38% in 2022 and 37.2%

12 in 2030.This will result in a corresponding increase in proportion of the population in working ages(15-64years) from 48.2% in 2009 to 53.9% in 2014 to 56.4% in 2017 to 59.5% in 2022 and 59.9% in 2030 over the same period, the proportion of the older persons above 64 years will remain almost unchanged at about 3%.

Table 8: Baringo County Demographic Dividend Indicators Indicator 2009 2014 2017 2022 2030 Population Size 555,441 626,451 676,301 769,487 929,225 Proportion of Population Below Age 15 (%) 48.4 43.1 40.9 38.0 37.2 Proportion of Population Above Age 64 (%) 3.2 2.8 2.6 2.5 2.7 Proportion of Population in the Working Ages 48.2 53.9 56.4 59.5 59.9 (15-64) (%) Dependency Ratio 107.2 85.2 77.1 68.0 66.6 Fertility (Average No. of Children Per Woman) 5.6 5.3 5.1 4.9 4.5 Source: CIDP Baringo, 2018-2022

The demographic window for Baringo County is expected to open in 2044. This is based on assumption that fertility rate continues to decline over the years to reach 2.1 by 2075. This is the period when the county can achieve maximum pace of economic growth as a result of the huge labour force relative to the dependent population. During this period, the proportion of children below age 15 will be below 30 percent while the proportion of older persons above 64 years will be less than 15 percent.

2.5 Human Development Approach 2.5.1 Human Development Indicators The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic of life expectancy, education, and income per capita indicators, which are used to rank countries... A country has scores a high HDI score when its life expectancy at birth is high (long), the education period is extensive, and the income per capita is high. These factors are measured by considering aspects such as education, healthy living, access to social amenities, the position and condition of women and gross domestic product. The HDI of the county is 0.5108275 which is slightly lower than the national‘s HDI of 0.520. The human poverty index is 30.6 per cent compared to the national level of 29 per cent. 2.5.2 Youth Development Index (YDI) The YDI is a composite measure of youth development. The index is a tool developed to raise visibility of youth issues by monitoring the changes that occur in the youth over time. The youth development index at the county is 0.5952, which is above the national index, which is 0.5817

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2.5.3 Gender Development Index (GDI) and Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) The GDI is a measure of human development that adjusts the HDI for disparities between men and women. It is, therefore, not a measure of gender inequality. GDI is a basic measure of how gender inequalities in knowledge acquisition, longevity and health, and standard of living affect human development. GEM measures gender equity in political and economic power by assessing the level of female representation. It considers gender gaps in political representation, professional and management positions, and earned incomes. It captures gender inequality in political participation, as measured by the percentage of seats held by women in national parliaments; economic participation and decision-making power, measured by the percentage of women among legislators, senior officials, and managers in professional and technical fields; and power of economic resources measured by the estimated earned income of women and men. On the other hand, the gender development index for the county is 0.50 per cent. The above indices show that the county is generally underdeveloped.

2.5.4 Poverty levels Poverty is a multidimensional measure of deprivation/need. As there is a definite link between marginalization and deprivation, a consideration of multiple basic needs gives an indication on marginalization. Poverty is characterized by the inability of households to meet basic needs and enjoy fundamental rights and by limited access to opportunities to fully participate in the economy. It is measured by the ability to feed oneself, to access quality housing, to attain quality health and to educate children. Poverty is also reflected through inadequate access to infrastructure and social services. Poverty was and is used by Commission of Revenue Allocation as one of the indicators because of its bearing on county‘s development. Most marginalized counties are poor, seen through inadequate access to basic services. Baringo County is among the marginalized counties in Kenya with a poverty incidence of 52.2% against 45.2% nationally and a contribution of 1.7% to the National poverty.

2.6 Infrastructure Development 2.6.1 Roads and Rail Network A modern and well-maintained physical infrastructure is a key catalyst to economic growth and poverty reduction. The county does not have a good road network. It has a total 5,943.92km of road with Class B, D, E, G, R and U having 66.4km, 339.22km, 1810km, 46.85km, 1,538.08km, and 2043.37km respectively. The roads are mainly earth and mixed type. These roads are usually impassable during the rainy season. This impedes livestock

14 marketing business commuting, which is the main source of livelihood for majority of the residents. There are four airstrips in the county and no airport, ports or jetties.

Table 9: County Road network Class Description Length (Km) A International link roads – proposed LAPPSET 100.0 B National trunk roads – linking provinces and counties 66.4 C Primary roads – linking important centres or to higher class Roads - D Secondary roads – linking important centres together 339.2 E Minor roads – linking minor centres 1810.0 G Government roads 46.9 R Rural access roads 1,538.1 U Unclassified roads 2,043.4 Source: CIDP Baringo, 2018-2022

Table 10: Roads Coverage by Type & Distance Type of Road Km 2013 2014 2017 Earth 995.17 1,639.97 3,125 Murram 2,141.10 2,197.30 2,396.30 Bitumen 339.22 343.22 422.62

Total 3,475.49 4,180.49 5,943.92 Source: CIDP Baringo, 2018-2022

Baringo County is endowed with many wide spread tourist attraction sites across the County with accessibility challenges but with many mapped airstrips and airfields. Most of these air- strips and airfields are undeveloped with only Kabarnet airstrip having a tarmacked runaway. There is need to invest in the improvement of these aviation facilities in the county. The following table indicates the county aviation facilities and their present statuses:

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Table 11: Airstrips and airfields in Baringo County Airstrip Condition Remarks Serviceable, Has an all-weather access road to Kabarnet Tarmacked, with town, parking bay and security housing. 1.7km runway, Urgently requires rehabilitation as well as Kabarnet Airfield gazetted windsock replacement. Partially serviceable, Dirt surface, Kimalel Airstrip Gazzeted Apron and access under encroachment Unserviceable, Dirt surface, Marigat Airstrip Gazzeted Apron and access under encroachment Currently handling tourist traffic. Urgently Serviceable, Dirt requires re-habilitation and facility Lake Baringo Airstrip surface Gazzeted provision. On the western shores of the lake Unserviceable, Not Loboi Landing Strip gazzeted Airstrip has been submerged in Lake Bogoria Unserviceable Eldama Ravine FTC and Land under cultivation. Urgently requires Air-Strip Gazzeted restoration Disused and Kamara Airstrip decommissioned Area demarcated for settlement Tinomoi Landing Strip Disused Land under dispute Currently under Kiserian Airstrip reconstruction On the eastern shores of Lake Baringo Mukutani Airstrip Partially serviceable Needs rehabilitation Urgently requires reconstruction. Land is Loruk Airstrip Disused available and has been set aside. Urgently requires reconstruction. Land is Tangulbei Airstrip Disused available Urgently requires reconstruction. Land is Churo Airstrip Disused available Arus Airstrip Serviceable Needs rehabilitation and expansion Nginyang Airstrip Serviceable Needs rehabilitation and expansion Maron Airstrip Disused Needs rehabilitation Needs rehabilitation. Jointly used by Kapedo Airstrip Partially serviceable Baringo and Turkana Barpelo Airstrip Not in use N/A Ngoron Airstrip Never took off Land available Kinyach Airstrip Serviceable Needs expansion TukTuk Proposed Land available – under grazing

There are several helipads in all the sub-counties though not officially gazetted. All landings are at the discretion of the pilots. These include school playfields, forest glades, bare hilltops and open grasslands.

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2.6.2 Information, Communication and Technology The Postal Corporation of Kenya and other registered courier operators currently provide mail and parcel delivery services in rural and urban areas with nine post offices in various urban areas across the county. Most of the fixed telephone lines provided by Telkom Kenya in the county have been vandalized. However, there is mobile telephone coverage in various parts of the county in varying degrees. Koibatek Sub County has the highest mobile phone coverage in the county with 65.3 per cent, while East Pokot has the lowest mobile phone coverage of 16.8 per cent. Generally the county has an average mobile coverage of 45 per cent, which is very low. The County has an operational Huduma Centre located at Kabarnet Town. Comparatively, the County has about 15.1% of its population owning Television sets ranked number 29 out of 47 counties in Kenya against a national average of 28%.

2.6.3 Energy access Electricity connections in the county are just above 9.6% of the County Population. This situation is rapidly changing as the County in collaboration with the National Government invests more resources in power generation, transmission and distribution through its last mile programme. The County is still below the national averages in the renewable improved energy sources. 2.6.4 Housing Types 2.6.4.1 Housing Typologies Housing typologies are largely influenced by the level of services within the County and also by the indigenous culture of the people. Nomadic pastoralism as a way of life is predominant in the some section of the County. Majority of people use mud/wood for construction of their houses as this is easily available and affordable. A smaller percentage of the population use brick and blocks. This can be attributed to the nomadic nature and lifestyle of the various communities in the region thus the need for temporary structures that can be easily demolished when need arises. However, it is important to note that the plot densities around major towns are beginning to increase and this will require development control in future.

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2.6.4.2 Housing Materials Floor material In Baringo County, 25% of homes are constructed by use of cement material, 73% have earth floors and less than 1% has tile floors. Baringo central has the highest share of cement floors at 46%. Tiaty has the least cement floors 4% (KNBS and SID, 2013). Roof material Corrugated iron sheets are commonly used the county at 58% and grass and Makuti thatched houses 39%. Other roofing materials are mu/dung and concrete each at 1%. Eldama Ravine Sub County has most of the houses with corrugated roofs while Tiaty has the highest number of homes with Makuti/grass roofs at 92%. (KNBS and SID, 2013). Wall material The most common material used in the county is mud/wood at 57%, wood only at 26%, grass/thatched walls at 2% while 1% made of tin and other materials. (Source: KNBS and SID, 2013). Informal Settlements Informal settlements in urban areas are settlements that have no legal ownership of land they occupy and the buildings do not comply with planning and building standards. Informal settlements in Baringo County include Bondeni in Eldama Ravine, Bondeni and Kaptimbor in Kabarnet, Kivumbini and Kampi Turkana in Marigat and Katorong‘ot in Mogotio sub counties. There is need for the county government to coordinate all slum upgrading projects in the county. The county government should facilitate the regularization of slums and informal settlements, towards providing sustainable housing solutions

2.7 Land And Land Use Land, sometimes referred to as dry land, is the solid surface of the earth that is not permanently covered by water. Most human activities occur on land which support agriculture, vast habitats and natural resources. Baringo County with a total land area of 11,015 square kilometres, has total arable land of 4, 435, total non-arable land of 5, 700 and total urban area land of 715 square kilomtres of Land. 2.7.1 Land ownership categories / classification Land tenure systems define rights to land ownership, use, access, control and transfer. The Constitution of Kenya categorizes land tenure into three groups:

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2.7.1.1 Community Land The largest portion of land in Baringo County is community land, held in trust by the County Government. Community land is protected under Article 63 of the Kenyan Constitution, will now be governed as outlined by the recently enacted Community Land Act 2015. (This pro- vides for the recognition, protection and registration of community land rights, as well as the management and administration of community land through community land boards, management committees and outlining the role of county governments in relation to unregistered community land). The community land ownership is predominant in Tiaty, North and South Baringo sub- counties. There are no community land/ group ranches in Baringo Central, Eldama Ravine and Mogotio. Group ranches are mostly found in Marigat, Kimalel, Bartun, Salabani, Kokwa Island, Eldume, Sabor, and Ngaratuko. The community land in Baringo South has been a source of conflict. However, with the recent enactment of the Community Land Act 2015, the existence of large portions of community land in the County is a big opportunity for development. The Act will enable communities to register their rights and interests in communal land, and to prepare their own plans for development, management and use of that community land. One of the forms of community land management is conservancies. A conservancy refers to land set aside by an individual landowner, body corporate, group of owners or a community for purposes of wildlife conservation (Wildlife Act 2013). The benefits from conservancies range from improved security, better land management, income, employment and support to community projects. There are various conservancies in the county.

2.7.1.2 Private Land Ownership Private land ownership is dominant in Eldama Ravine, Mogotio, Baringo Central and the high- lands of Eldama Ravine (such as Ossen, Kabartonjo and Kipsaraman), which are largely held under a freehold basis. Land is also held on a leasehold basis within the town centres. 2.7.1.3 Public Land Public land refers to land governed either by the national government or by the county government (other than community land). Within the County, this includes the forested lands, Lake Bogoria National Reserve and Lake Kamnarok National Reserve (managed by the County Government), Lake Baringo and the public land within town centres. Public land management is a complex matter because of the myriad of legislation and institutions involved in its governance.

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The main challenge facing public land is encroachment and grabbing in various parts of the county. This in turn, constrains public utility provision when it is planned for as land availability no longer exists. There is therefore, an urgent need to reclaim and protect all public land within the county. The New Baringo Land Policy aims at increasing public land by obligating a surrender of 10% of land for public use whenever any subdivision of group ranches into individual parcels is being done, or 4% of land where land over 2.5 acres is being subdivided into smaller units.

2.7.2 Mean holding size The average farm size is 2.5ha. Landholding in the county varies from one sub-county to another. Whereas landholding in the southern part of the county, that is, Koibatek Sub-County, averages 2.5ha and demarcated with title deeds, land is still communal and managed by the community in the northern part, that is, the Tiaty, Eldama Ravine and Baringo south Sub- Counties.

2.7.3 Percentage of land with title deeds In Baringo County, three main types of land tenure exist: Leasehold, freehold, communal land. .Most land in Baringo County is under trust and is owned by the community. The main land ownership documentation includes title deeds (47%) and letters of allotment (23%) and the remaining (30%) held Occupation Licenses, Letter of offer, Certificate of Ownership, Scheme Cards and Certificate of lease as ownership documentation.

About 45 per cent of land is demarcated and owners issued with title deeds with Eldama Ravine, Mogotio and Baringo Central sub counties have the higher numbers of title deeds issuance compared to Eldama Ravine, Marigat and Tiaty sub counties.

2.7.4 Incidence of landlessness As per the 2009 Kenya Population and Housing Census, Baringo County had a total population of 63,243 persons in urban areas with 100% formal settlement pattern and zero incidence of landlessness reported, however there are few cases of squatters in urban centers of Mogotio and Marigat cropping up.

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2.7.5 Settlement patterns Human settlements refer to the concentration of activities and people in space. They include urban areas, informal settlements, etc. Settlements play an important role; they are agents of economic growth and provide favorable locations for productive investment.

Physical developments in functional human settlements-whether located in urban or rural areas-are organized in a coherent manner. Human settlements are broadly categorized as urban or rural. Rural population is majorly hom*ogenous and the settlements are characterized by nucleated/clustered patterns while urban population is predominantly heterogeneous and follows linear and clustered patterns. Sustainable human settlement development is achieved through the integration of services and functions offered at growth, service and market centres facilitated by human settlement. Human settlements therefore, play an important role as agents of economic growth by providing favorable locations for productive investments, human resource and market for the produce.

2.8 Employment 2.8.1 Wage-earners The County has a population of 5% with no formal education, 14% with primary education and 26% with a secondary level of education or above are working for pay. Work for pay is highest in Nairobi at 49%, which is almost twice the level of work for pay in Baringo for those with a secondary level of education or above. 2.8.2 Self-employed From the County 2009 Kenya Population and Housing Census(KPHC, 2009), 33.3 per cent of the total population in the county are in self- employment through modern self-employment at 0.5 per cent, informal self-employment at 16.5 per cent, self-small scale Agriculture at 6.9 per cent and self pastoralist at 9.4 per cent; all spread across the county. These percentages are expected to increase during the planning period as most of the County population was under 15 years as at 2009 transiting to the labour force age bracket of 15 – 64 years.

2.8.3 Labour force According to 2009 KPHC Analytical report, projected population within the age brackets 15– 64 years which forms the County‘s labour force forms about 48 per cent of the projected total population during the planning period as indicated below.

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Table 12: Labour Force in the County 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 Age Total Total Total Total Total Total Bracket Labour Labour Labour Labour Labour Labour (yrs) Force Force Force Force Force Force 15-64 351,577 363,780 376,098 388,063 400,125 411,785

2.8.4 Unemployment levels Unemployment Rate in Kenya decreased to 11 percent in 2016 from 11.29 percent in 2015. Unemployment Rate in Kenya averaged 10.62 percent from 1991 until 2016, reaching an all- time high of 12.18 percent in 2010 with 9.7 per cent in 2009 and a record low of 8.10 percent in 1999. In Baringo County, unemployment stood at 11 per cent in 2009 and increased at the same rate.

2.9 Irrigation Infrastructure and Schemes 2.9.1 Irrigation schemes and potential (small/large scale) The county has an estimated potential of 65,000 ha of land that can be put under irrigation but only 2236 of this has been utilized. There is need for the county to create more sources of water taking advantage of the County topographical landscape that is very much suitable for rivers upstream water collection to bring more land in the flat lowlands into utilization through gravity water which will in turn increase food production and reduce incidences of malnutrition and create wealth.

2.10 Crop, Livestock, Fish Production and Value Addition 2.10.1 Main crops produced Horticultural crops in the County are: Fruits which include Banana, mango, avocado, oranges, lemons, passion fruits, pawpaw, water melons, guavas, tree tomato, custard apple, apples, plums, pears, and peaches; Nuts and Oils include macadamia nuts and ground nuts; Vegetables grown in the County include cabbage, kales, tomato, carrots, French beans, spinach, gar-den peas, snow pea, snap peas, potato, eggplant, bell pepper/sweet paper, pumpkin fruit, pumpkin leaves, butter nut, leaf amaranth, African nightshade, spider plant and cowpeas and Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (MAPs) including Bulb onion, Spring onion, Chilies and Aloe. The Cereal crops grown in the county are: Maize, Wheat, Rice, Sorghum, Finger millet, Pearl millet, Oats, Grain amaranth.

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Maize and beans are mainly grown in the highlands while sorghum and finger millet are grown in the lowlands. There is need to put incentives in agriculture like subsidized farm inputs to encourage more people into farming to reduces incidences of food shortage. Coffee is also grown in some parts Eldama Ravine, Baringo central. Investors have shown interest in this crop and its production is expected to increase by double digits since the county for the last 3 years has been subsidizing coffee seedlings to farmers.

2.10.2 Average farm sizes The average farm size is 2.5ha. Landholding in the county varies from one sub-county to an- other. Whereas landholding in the southern part of the county, that is, Koibatek Sub-County, averages 2.5ha and demarcated with title deeds, land is still communal and managed by the community in the northern part, that is, Tiaty Sub-County, Baingo North and Baringo south.

2.10.3 Main storage facilities A high percentage of agricultural produce is for subsistence purposes. The county is also served by the National Cereals and Produce Board, which has four depots in the county that are located in Eldama Ravine, Marigat, Kimalel and Kabarnet. There are only 7 coffee factories spread across coffee growing zones. The only functioning coffee cooperatives; one in Kituro and another in Kapkawa, Macadamia cooperative in Kabarnet and Maize cooperative in Marigat (seed maize production and rice production).There is an inactive Cotton cooperative.

2.10.4 Agricultural extension, training, research and information services Extension personnel have the task of bringing scientific knowledge to farm families in the farms and homes. The object of the task is to improve the efficiency of agriculture. County extension services or system assists farm people, through educational procedures, in improving farming methods and techniques, increasing production efficiency and income, bettering their standard of living and lifting social and educational standards. County Extension Services involves the conscious use of communication of information to help people form sound opinions and make good decisions. Agricultural Extension: Assistance to farmers help them identify and analyze their production problems and become aware of the opportunities for improvement. It is also a professional communication intervention deployed by County institutions i.e ATC to induce change in voluntary behaviors with a presumed public or collective utility.

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The essence of agricultural extension is to facilitate interplay and nurture synergies within a total information system involving agricultural research, agricultural education and a vast complex of information-providing businesses. Agricultural Training Collage at Eldama Ravine provides an opportunity in application of scientific research and new knowledge to agricultural practices through farmer education. The field of 'extension' now encompasses a wider range of communication and learning activities organized for rural people by educators in agriculture, agricultural marketing and value addition. Agricultural and machinery services agency based in Marigat provides new farming technologies to the farmers and provides subsidized equipment as part of farm input strategy in the sub sector. Veterinary sub sector has also invested heavily in extension services to improve the animal husbandry in the county and add value and income to the sector. Kenya Agricultural, Livestock Research Organization (KALRO) and Egerton University have set bases in the county to assist in research and development in agricultural sector in order to improve farmer incomes and develop resilience in the arid areas.

2.10.5 Ranching in Baringo County The group ranches in the Lake Baringo Basin were under adjudication and registration between 1968 and 1982 when the Kenya Livestock Development project phase I and II was functional. This project ended in 1982 when the Group Ranches were still under the process of adjudication and registration. Many of the group ranches that were proposed for adjudication and registration have yet to be fully registered. Those whose adjudication and registration have been completed have not had any ranch development carried out by the members nor have there been any donor to help finance the ranch developments. This situation has led to members of some of the group ranches demanding for subdivision of their ranches into individual holdings as indicated above. The group ranches neighboring urban centers are being encroached by the expanding towns.

2.10.6 Apiculture/Beekeeping Beekeeping (apiculture) is practiced in most parts of the County, particularly in the lowlands In addition to contributing directly to household incomes. Bees play an important role in plant pollination. The county produces an estimated 600 tonnes of honey annually valued at KES 120

24 million. Due to the low investment and variable costs involved, beekeeping is becoming increasingly popular in the county. In particular, the department of livestock production plans to increase productivity in honey among other commodities. The target is to revive existing honey refineries and construct more. Besides educating farmers on modern beekeeping methods, harvesting and processing techniques, there are plans to open up more collection centers and demonstration apiaries to be ran by the local communities Most of the farmers use the log hive and efforts have been intensified by the county government and stakeholders to gradually move the farmers to the use of appropriate (modern hives).

2.11 Oil and Other Mineral Resources 2.11.1 Mineral and Oil potential A few valuable minerals have been discovered in the county. Opal has been mined at Isanda near Perkerra. Fluorspar deposits have been cited in the basem*nt and volcanic rocks of Tiaty Hills and North Baringo (Kaborion) while carbon dioxide has been extracted from several bore- holes in the southern part of the county. In recent times, quarrying has gained prominence in the county, especially in Marigat Ward where building stones, sand and ballast are being exploited. There are also abandoned ruby mines at Sandai location near Lake Bogoria. The county has a potential of ruby, diatomite, manganese and fluorspar mining though the quantity of deposits is yet to be established. Exploration will need to be carried out so as to establish the quantity of these mineral deposits. Quarrying is generally done for building stones, ballast, sand, laterite (murram) and other building and construction rock material. The proceeds from the sale of minerals in Baringo County have not been quantified, as the small scale mining activities are not structured. Tullow Oil Company has set base at the county, Block 12A, to explore oil and if it is exploited, it will be shared between Baringo and Elgeyo-Marakwet counties. Government-owned Geo- thermal Development Company has also started drilling geothermal energy at Silale area in Tiaty. Baringo County also has carbon dioxide deposits at Esageri, Mogotio Sub-County.

2.11.2 Ongoing mining and extraction activities The county Department of Environment, Natural Resource, Energy and Mining has been mandated to do head count and assessment of County Quarries and mineral base.

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Table 13: Mining and Extraction Activities per Sub County Baringo Eldama Baringo Eldama Number Central Ravine South Ravine Mogotio Tiaty Stones 14 7 5 20 7 8 Ballast 0 3 2 1 0 1

Minerals 0 0 2 0 0 1

Marrum 0 2 1 0 1 1

Sand 2 - 1 - - 2 Source: County Department of Environment, Mining and Natural Resources, 2018

2.12 Tourism and Wildlife 2.12.1 Main tourist attraction, national parks and reserves The bubbling waters, hot springs, gushing geysers, flamingoes and ostriches are among the major attractions in Lake Bogoria and Kapedo hot springs. Other wildlife includes tortoises, large aquatic and terrestrial game. There is also huge potential for private/community conservancies as well as cultural and agro-eco-tourism tourism. Baringo County boasts of high class tourist resort centers, among them Lake Bogoria Spa Resort and Papyrus Inn hotels. Baringo County shall also diversify the industry and tap into conference tourism potential by marketing the existing facilities and promoting and encouraging new investments to complement earnings from other tourist attractions. Other areas with opportunity for diversification include education tourism and golf tourism. The county governments will, therefore, support incentive schemes to enhance educational tourism and actualization of golfing. Some forests in Tugen Hills, Laikipia escarpment and Eldama Ravine have beautiful sceneries that attract regular visitors. Apart from being good catchment areas for birds, wildlife, picnics and eco-tourism, forests encourage soil conservation through terracing, vegetable growing and beekeeping. Lake Baringo has 13 islands and viewpoints that provide magnificent views of the lake. The largest island being Olkokwe, with Samatian being small but with breathtaking views across the bronze waters of Lake Baringo. Other interesting tourist locations in the lake are Soi Safari Lodge, Lake Baringo Club as well as Reptile Park, which is one of the largest reptile parks in the Rift Valley. Another one is Ruko Wildlife Conservancy that scenic attractions ranging from wildlife to cultural villages. Korossi volcano, which rises 1,449m above sea level, offers an ideal spot for watching birds such as bat hawks and majestic verreauxs eagle. Kabarnet National Museum and Kipsaraman

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Community Museum are located on top of Tugen Hills. The two museums form unique tourist sites with varied attractions and house traditional Kalenjin artifacts, which include musical instruments, storage equipment, furniture and ornamental decorations. At Eldama Ravine, there are the Kursalal falls, a stunning waterfall within Lembus forests.

2.13 Industry and Trade 2.13.1 Markets In an effort to create an enabling environment to promote business growth and investment. The County has so far constructed nine (9) fresh produce markets at Kabel, (Mochongoi); Emining; Kapkelelwa; Equator/Mumberes/; Koloa; Tenges; Kabarnet; Barbachun; Kipsaraman and renovated Eldama Ravine and Mogotio markets. Each of the 11 markets has capacity to host upto 60 traders translating to the creation of 660 enterprises and 990 jobs respectively. It is anticipated that traders operating in these markets are able to optimize profits and enjoy higher incomes. Additionally, the County also constructed two (2) curio shops at Lake Baringo (KampiSamaki) and Emsos in Lake Bogoria, eighteen (18) Honey Stalls and 80 retailer stalls each accommodating upto four traders. To enhance the benefits derived from the markets, the County provides training to business operators to equip them with entrepreneurial and financial management skills to be able to start, grow and sustain profitable enterprises.

Table 14: No. of Markets constructed, enterprises & jobs created and total number of beneficiaries No. of Status at No. of enterprises No. of jobs No. of Household Type of markets baseline markets created created beneficiaries Number of Modern Retail Market 2 11 660 990 4,950

Number of Curio Shops 0 2 20 30 150 Number of Honey Stalls 0 18 18 27 135 Number of Retailer Stalls 0 80 320 480 2,400 Source: CIDP Baringo County, (2018-2022)

2.13.2 Industrial Parks (Including Jua Kali sheds) Currently, the County has two operational Jua Kali sheds located in Kabarnet and Eldama Ravine. These sheds accommodates close to forty (40) businesses mainly in carpentry and welding and employs at least 60 people, directly or indirectly.

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Additionally, the county has also initiated construction of Boda Boda sheds at Barwessa, Seguton, Torongo, Sawich, Tugumoi, Kampi Samaki, Timboroa and Arama. There are plans to construct more Jua Kali and Boda Boda sheds in other locations to create better working environment for the fast growing informal businesses.

The County does not have an industrial park at the moment, however, there are plans to develop one in a strategic location that can attract local, Regional and international businesses in all sectors. Completion and operationalization of the industrial park will help create massive employment and wealth for the people of Baringo.

2.13.3 Major Industries The major regional infrastructure passing through Baringo which include the LAPPSET corridor, the National power grid from Lake Turkana wind power, and the Nakuru- Marigat- Loruk-Kapedo highway positions the county as a strategic location for industrialization and investment. The county potential for industrialization is yet to be fully exploited, mainly in the following sectors: . Honey Refinery . Diatomite mining . Meat processing . Leather processing & manufacturing of leather products e.g. shoes, belts, hand-bags . Coffee processing . Timber . Dairy processing . Aloe processing & manufacturing Existing factories include Goldox Kenya Limited, an international donkey slaughter house located in Mogotio sub-county; Cummins Power Co-generation Company for renewable energy in Baringo South (yet to be operationalized), Salawa cotton Ginnery in Baringo Central (privately owned); a Fruit processing factory in Marigat (formerly owned by KWAL and sold to Marigat Co-operative & Marketing Society and an upcoming Dairy processing plant in Eldama Ravine owned by BAMSCOS , a co-operative umbrella body owned by a group of co- operative societies in Baringo.

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2.13.4 Types and number of businesses The county prides in having a wide range of businesses in various sectors. Most of these businesses are small and medium size and are located in the major towns namely: Kabarnet, Eldama Ravine, Marigat and Mogotio. It is anticipated that with improved business environment, some of the businesses will upscale to bigger businesses and will be able to create more employment and wealth for the people of the Baringo. Table 13 shows the main businesses and their numbers by category. Fresh producer traders, retail traders, supermarkets, wholesalers, liquor outlets and hawkers and informal enterprises have not been documented

Table 15: No of business by category Business Category Number of Businesses Hospitality (Hotels, guesthouses etc) 30 Private Schools 30 Private hospitals 10 Agro-processors 5 Agro-vets 50 Timber millers 15 Export market 3 Construction 200 Telecommunication 2 Petrol stations 25 Financial & Non-financial service providers(Banks, Insurance, SACCOs) 74 Transport business ( Matatu Operators SACCO‘s) 20 Source: CIDP Baringo County, (2018-2022)

2.13.5 Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME) MSME remains to be one of the largest source of wealth and employment creation in Baringo and in Kenya at large. However, majority of the MSME operators in Baringo are constraint by inadequate capital and knowledge gap that is necessary for business growth and sustainability. To address these challenges, the County government implements various initiatives that are aimed at supporting the traders. These initiatives include accessing MSME loans to traders for business enhancement and providing them with business and financial management training. The training equip the traders with entrepreneurial knowledge and skills that help them to grow and sustain profitable businesses for increased income.

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Cumulatively, the county has disbursed Kshs. 29.6 Million to 358 beneficiaries in the last five years. The beneficiaries include 78 Men; 146 women; 108 youth and 26 Persons with Disability. All the 358 loan beneficiaries have been provided business and financial management training.

2.14 The Blue Economy (Including Fisheries) 2.14.1 Aquaculture Fish farming in Baringo County is mainly practiced at subsistence level in earthen ponds that were constructed under the Economic Stimulus Programme (ESP) in Mogotio and Koibatek sub-counties. There has since increased the interest in fish farming in other sub-counties such as Marigat, Baringo Central and Eldama Ravine. Aquaculture accounts for about 20% of total fish production in the county (about 42 MT) in 2016. Fish production from aquaculture is expected to increase as a result of the present increase in demand for fish given that fish production from the lakes has been on the decrease. There are over 750 fish ponds in the county each measuring approximately 300 m2 putting the total area under aquaculture to about 195,000 m2 (214.52 acres). The main fish species cultured in the county includes tilapia and catfish.

2.14.2 Main Fishing Activities, Type of Fish Produced and Landing sites Fish production in Baringo mainly occur in Lakes Baringo, Lake 94 and Kapnarok. Besides, fishing also occurs in major water dams and individual owned fish ponds across the County. Fresh water fisheries of Lake Baringo contributes to over 80% of total fish production in Baringo County. Approximately 250 MT were landed in 2016 and earned the fishermen Ksh 75 million. Lake Baringo has six gazette beaches namely Kampi ya Samaki, Ngenyin, Loruk, Komolion, Kiserian and Salabani. There are 200 artisanal fishermen operating in the lake and fish using small wooden canoes. Five fish species are commercially exploited in Lake Baringo namely Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus baringoensis), African lung fish (Protopterus ethiopicus) cat fish (Clarias gariepinus), barbus species (Barbus intermedius) and Labeo. Currently, landings of Lung fish constitute the largest percentage of the total catch landed annually and is a major contributor to revenues earned locally. The Lake has a potential to produce over 600 metric tonnes (MT) achievable with good management practices. Dam fisheries Over 35 community dams were stocked with tilapia and catfish fingerlings in the year 2014. This fishery has not been fully exploited but it has a huge potential of producing fish besides creating employment to the communities living around those dams. Currently organized

30 fishing activities are practiced in very few dams and contribute less than 0.1% of the County annual fish production. Besides producing fish for consumption, the County is promoting sport fishing in Chemususu dam in Eldama Ravine Sub County.

There are over 400 fishing households in Lake Baringo and 700 fish farmers with fishponds in the county. In the recent past, 35 dams have also been stocked with 910,000 fingerlings mainly of the Tilapia and Clarias species. Fishponds in the county occupy over 184,000 square metres. The main fish species are protopterous (lung fish), tilapia and clarias. Fish farmers obtain their fingerlings from Omega farm in Lake Baringo or Jewlet Farm in Homabay County at a price of between Sh7 and Sh11. The survival rates are estimated at 90%. The fishing gear being used by the fishermen are: Fishing nets, hooks, traps, motorboats and canoes. The total value of fish is approximately Sh11.8 million.

2.15 Forestry, Agro-Forestry and Value Addition The indicative value chains and value addition facilities for forest products is presented in this section. 2.15.1 Main Forest types and size of forests (Gazetted and Un-gazetted forests) According to Kenya Forest Service, there exist 11 number of gazetted forests covering a total area of 73, 709 hactares of land and one non-gazetted forests covering a total of 2, 593 hactares of land across Baringo County. 2.15.2 Main Forest products The Main wood forest products include: timber, fuel wood, poles, withies, char-coal, wild fruits among others, while non-wood forest products are grass, quarrying, water, soil, herbs, and honey among others. 2.15.3 Value chain development of forestry products The following are the Value chain development activities of forestry products; Poles treatment plants, Charcoal production, Tannins (wattle trees), Electricity generation from biomass, Honey processing, Fruit juice processing plants, Human food and animal fodder processing (prosopis juliflora) guns and resins production, Fuel energy saving technologies e.g. improved jikos.

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2.16 Financial Services 2.16.1 Distribution and coverage of financial services by sub-county The County has 14 Banks, 13 SACCOs and 32 other financial institutions established across the county offering financial services. Most of the banks and financial institutions are based in four major towns in the county: Kabarnet, Marigat, Koibatek and Mogotio. The County‘s access to financial services is still low with no established insurance institution.

2.17 Environment and Climate Change 2.17.1 Major degraded areas / hotspots and major contributions to environmental degradation Land degradation in Baringo County manifests as soil erosion, vegetation degradation and sedimentation of open water sources which pose a threat to the livelihood of Baringo County residents. Overgrazing, overstocking, deforestation, uncontrolled charcoal burning and cultivation on steep slopes especially in the highlands in the County degrade the land. Proper measures need to be put in place to mitigate the impact of land degradation. Furthermore, productive land is necessary for crop production and good pasture. Increased human population coupled with climate change put pressure on land resource. Deforestation and land degradation upstream also results in flooding downstream.

Table 16: Causes of Environmental Degradation in Baringo County Causes of No. name of ward environmental wards Degradation Felling of trees in forests 20 Saimo/Kipsaramam,Saimosoi, Barwesa, Kabartonjo, and charcoal burning Koibatek, Lembus Central, Lembusmosop, Kisanana, Mogotio, Emining, Mochongoi, Ilchamus, Mochongoi, Mukutani, Sacho, Tenges, Ewalel/ Chapchap, Kapropita, Koloa and Ribkwo Soil erosion and floods 12 Barwesa, Saimosoi, Kisanana. Mogotio, Marigat, Mochongoi, Kabarnet, Koibatek, Emining, Ilchamus, Ribkwo and Loyamorok Unregulated and 11 Kapropita, Marigat, Kabartonjo, Tenges, Mogotio, uncontrolled waste Eldama/Ravine, Lembusmosop, Chemolingot, Kolowa disposal and Tangulbei Sand harvesting along 5 Saimosoi, Mogotio, Kabarnet, Ribkwo and Koloa, river Beds Barwessa.

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Presence of quarries 14 Marigat, Mochongoi, Bartabwa, Barwesa, Saimosoi, leaving Kisanana, Koibatek, Mogotio, Perrkera, Tenges, many openings which Kabartonjo, Ribkwo, Tangulbei pose and Kolowa dangers Poor farming methods 30 All wards

Encroachment of 6 Mochongoi, Kabartonjo, Bartabwa, Koibatek, Sacho, expanding Marigat populations into forested areas Agricultural inputs 4 Marigat, Kabarnet, Ilchamus, Churo contaminating soil and water bodies resulting in eutrophication Overgrazing 13 Barwesa , Bartabwa, Saimosoi, Marigat, Ilchamus, Mochongoi, Ripkwo, Silale, Loyamorok, Tangulbei, Tirioko,Churo/Amaya, Kolowa Source: CIDP Baringo County, (2018-2022)

2.17.2 Environmental threats Environmental threats such as loss of biodiversity, drought, floods, deforestation landslides, coastal and marine erosion / pollution, emergence of marine related diseases and epidemics, invasive species etc are considered. In Baringo County, the main environmental threats/hazards affecting the county are; Droughts, floods, conflicts (Natural resource based including wildlife), land degradation and landslides, human diseases, animal diseases and crop diseases, invasive species. The following is the ranking of Environmental threats/hazards in Baringo, Table 17.

Table 17: Environmental Threats/Hazards in Baringo County Threats/Hazard Rank Drought 1 Natural Resource Based Conflict 2 Human diseases 3 Livestock diseases 4 Crop diseases 5 Floods 6 Wild life conflicts 7 Land degradation 8 Fire 9 Landslides 10 Source: County Hazards Map, 2016

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2.17.3 Solid waste management facilities Table 18: Solid waste facilities Type of facility Sub county Hauler/transport Agent Collection/storage Disposal - 1 transfer station Non Baringo South 36 litter bins Eldama Ravine - 21litter bins - 1 dump site (not Baringo Central 1 waste track 46 litter bins functional) Kabarnet 1waste 4 transfer compactor stations Tiaty 18 litter bins Mogotio 1 tractor 31 litter bins 1 dumpsite at Emining E/Ravine 2 tractors 13 litter bins 1 dump site / Ravine town

2.18 Water and Sanitation 2.18.1 Water resources Being an ASAL county, Baringo has prioritized the provision of water for human, livestock and for irrigation as a necessary requirement for the general development of the county. Water shortage is prevalent, especially around Lake Baringo and Lake Bogoria, parts of Kerio Valley, Mogotio, western slopes of Ng‘elecha (Mochongoi) and the entire Tiaty (Kolowa to Tangulbei). This is caused by the low rainfall received and cyclic droughts. This has hindered development in livestock production and farming activities, as people spend many hours daily looking for water. Water from Lake Baringo has not been exploited for domestic use and irrigation. The county government shall support efforts to upscale construction of water pans and dams as well as ground water in order to solve water shortage, especially during dry seasons. The county government shall promote partners to drill boreholes to increase accessibility of clean water in the county. The ongoing Chemususu phase two, covering Mogotio, Eldama ravine and parts of Nakuru, is one of the long-term strategies in solving water shortage in the county. Other water development initiatives to be supported by the county government include abstraction of water from rivers, spring protections, harvesting of rain water from roof and other catchments. The county government shall promote and support efforts for upstream water catchment protection.

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Major rivers like Kerio, Waseges, Emsos, Loboi, Perkerra and Molo together with their tributaries could be tapped for domestic use and irrigation. Other rivers that may be of importance, though seasonal, are Amaya, Nginyang‘, Mukutani, Arabel and Edao. 2.18.2 Water supply schemes Water supplies are managed by county through two newly formed companies (Kirandich and Chemususu) and the community. The county has scarce water sources and most of the population relies on water from streams. Phase two of Kirandich Dam in Kabarnet which is ongoing will expand coverage and thus serve higher population. The water distribution system needs to be expanded in all parts of the county. The county government shall promote, support and encourage implementation of projects geared towards expanding water supply coverage to communities through own or partnership initiatives. The county government shall mobilize resources internally and externally to finance such initiatives. 2.18.3 Water sources and access The sources of water in the county include dams, lake, water pans, streams, wells, springs and boreholes. They may be piped water or point sources. Water from vendors, especially in urban centres and small market centres, constitute a small percentage. The average distance to the nearest water point is 5km. This is way below the SHERE Standards on access to water. The county government shall institute measures and policies that will favour improvement of the existing situation. Therefore, the county government shall initiate programmes for improvement of water access and also engage with partners to reduce distance to water points to the acceptable standard of 30 minutes‘ walk. The Bill on Human Rights lists water as one of the human rights. Policy makers should put in measures to increase accessibility.

Table 19: Water sources for different Households in Baringo County (Kenya population and Housing Census Report, 2009) Sub-County Dam Lake Stream Springs Piped Into Piped Jabia/ Water Other / Wells Dwelling Rain Vendor Baringo Central 513 861 20106 6768 822 5151 118 422 177 Eldama Ravine 291 915 13120 4577 49 367 103 82 230 East Pokot 2246 536 9394 6280 97 59 60 35 2584 Koibatek 4073 32 15094 5276 957 8046 159 656 393 Total 7123 2344 57714 22901 1925 13623 440 1195 3384

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2.18.4 Water management Baringo County has two water companies which manage water. Chemususu Water Company manages Eldama Ravine and Mogotio Sub-counties while Kirandich Water Company manages Baringo Central, Eldama Ravine, Baringo South and Tiaty sub-counties 2.18.5 Sanitation Most of the population does not have access to good sanitation. Households using bushes to relieve themselves constitute 49 per cent while 46 per cent use pit latrines. Only five per cent of the population has access to proper sanitation. There is no sewerage plant in all the towns and trading centres in the county. This poses a major health and pollution hazard among the residents of Baringo. The county government shall support and partner with relevant development agencies to promote sensitization towards increased latrine coverage as well as mobilizing resources for programmes geared towards Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) and promotion of low-cost latrine construction technologies.

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CHAPTER THREE: POLICY, LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK 3.1. Back Ground and General Overview Development can have major impacts on the environment by degrading soils and waterways, altering landscape and destroying biodiversity and habitat. Other problems associated with development and human activity include land use conflicts, human and animal conflicts, water management and environmental pollution. In addition to harming the environment, these impacts can and do have significant economic costs and negatively affect human health. Integrated Environmental and Social Impact Assessment (IESIA) is a tool that assists in the anticipation and minimization of the adverse effects of development. Undertaken in the early stages of project planning and design, IESIA seeks to help shape development in a manner that best suits the local environment and is most responsive to human needs. The concept of IESIA arose from the pollution and degradation of natural resources caused by rapid population growth, industrialization, agricultural development and technical progress. IESIA recognizes that natural resources are finite and incapable of absorbing the unchecked demands of modern society. There is a growing concern in Kenya and at global level that many forms of development activities cause damage to the environment. This has been aggravated by lack of awareness and inadequate information amongst the public on the consequences of their interaction with the environment. In addition there is limited local communities‘ involvement in participatory planning and management of the environment and natural resources. Recognizing the importance of natural resources and the environment in general, the Kenyan Government has put in place wide range of policy, institutional and legislative framework to address the major causes of environmental degradation and negative impacts on ecosystems emanating from industrial and economic development programmes. It is now accepted that development projects must be economically viable, socially acceptable and environmentally sound. It is a condition of the Kenya Government to conduct Integrated Environmental Impact Assessment study on development of high environment risk. IESIA assesses the impacts of a proposed Mochongoi settlement scheme before, during and after degazettement. In addition to helping formulate proper development policy, IESIA provides for public participation in the decision making process. IESIA serves the following purposes: i) Integration of environmental issues into planning and decision making processes;

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ii) Anticipation, minimization and mitigation of environmental damage and recommendation of alternatives; iii) Public participation in decision making and environmental conservation. The steps included in and IESIA are contained in the Environmental of the Environmental Management and Coordination (Amendment) Act of 2015 (EMCA) at Sections 58 and regulation 4, 19 and 19 of Environmental Management and Coordination (Strategic Assessment, Integrated Impact Assessment and Audit) Regulations, 2018. All undertakings enumerated in the Second Schedule of EMCA require an Environmental Impact Assessment project/study report prepared and submitted to the National Environment Management Authority (NEMA) for review and eventual licensing before the development commences.

3.2. Fundamental Principles of Environmental Laws Environmental law is principally concerned with ensuring the sustainable utilization of natural resources according to a number of fundamental principles developed over the years through both municipal and international processes. In an ideal setting, the utilization of land and land based resources should adhere to these principles, which are sustainability, intergenerational equity, principle of prevention, the precautionary principle; the polluter pays principle, and public participation. The principle of sustainability requires that natural resources should be utilized ―in a way and at a rate that does not lead to the long-term decline of biological diversity, thereby maintaining its potential to meet the needs and aspirations of present and future generations.‖ It strives for equity in the allocation of the benefits of development and decries short-term resource exploitation which does not consider the long-term costs of such exploitation. In short, it advocates for prudent utilization of natural resources. The principle of sustainability should be examined together with that of intergenerational equity, which focuses on future generations as a rightful beneficiary of environmental protection. Essentially, the principle of intergenerational equity advocates fairness, so that present generations do not leave future generations worse off by the choices they make today regarding development. Its implementation requires the utilization of natural resources in a sustainable manner while avoiding irreversible environmental damage.

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The principle of prevention states that ―protection of the environment is best achieved by preventing environmental harm in the first place rather than relying on remedies or compensation for such harm after it has occurred.‖ The reasoning behind this principle is that prevention is less costly than allowing environmental damage to occur and then taking mitigation measures. At the international level, this principle has been particularly prominent in the context of pollution. The precautionary principle recognizes the limitations of science, as it is not always able to accurately predict the likely environmental impacts of resource utilization. Thus environmental problems occurring today such as ozone depletion and climate change were not foreseen in good time by scientists. It thus calls for precaution in the making of environmental decisions where there is scientific uncertainty. Accordingly, it is closely related to the principle of prevention and ―can be viewed as the application of the principle of prevention where the scientific understanding of a specific environmental threat is not complete.‖ The precautionary principle thus requires that all reasonable measures must be taken to prevent the possible deleterious environmental consequences of development activities. Further, it demands that scientific uncertainty should not be used as a reason for not taking cost-effective measures to prevent environmental harm. In addition, the need for environmental impact assessment (ESIA) should be seen in the context of the precautionary principle. The purpose of such an assessment is to assess the impact of proposed development activities and ensure that any likely adverse impacts on the environment can be dealt with. The polluter pays principle requires that polluters of natural resources should bear the full environmental and social costs of their activities. It thus seeks to internalize environmental externalities by ensuring that the full environmental and social costs of resource utilization are reflected in the ultimate market price for the products of such utilization. Since environmentally harmful products will tend to cost more, this principle promotes efficient and sustainable resource allocation as consumers are likely to prefer to the cheaper less polluting substitutes of such products. Finally, the principle of public participation seeks to ensure environmental democracy and requires that the public, especially local communities should participate in the environment and development decisions that affect their lives. It requires that the public should have appropriate access to information concerning the environment that is held by public authorities, and should be given an opportunity to participate in decision making processes. In addition, it requires that

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the public should be given effective access to judicial and administrative proceedings. Accordingly, the public should have access to the judicial review of environmental decision making.

3.3. International Conventions and Treaties Conventions are legally binding bilateral, regional or international agreements that binding to the states that are parties thereto. Kenya has ratified some of the most important conventions on the environment and is bound by the same. 3.3.1 The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Kenya ratified the Convention in June 1990. The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands is primarily concerned with the conservation and management of wetlands. Parties to the Convention are also required to promote wise use of wetlands in their territories and to take measures for the conservation by establishing nature reserves in wetlands, whether they are included in the Ramsar list or not. Wetlands are defined by the Ramsar Convention as ―areas of marsh, fen, peat land or water, whether natural or artificial, permanent or temporary with water that is static or flowing, fresh, brackish or salty, including areas of marine water the depth of which at law tide does not exceed six meters‖. The National Wetland Standing Committee of Kenya‘s Inter-Ministerial Committee on Environment (IMCE) defines wetlands as ―areas of land that are permanently, seasonally or occasionally water logged with fresh, saline, brackish or marine water, including both natural and man-made areas that support characteristic biota‖ while EMCA defines wetland as ―an area permanently or seasonally flooded by water plants and animals have become adapted. For this reason, the proposed degazettement of Ol Arabel Forest for Mochongoi settlement scheme is expected to strictly observe the Ramsar Convention’s principles of wise use of the wetlands.

3.3.2. The Rio Declaration and Agenda 21 The Rio Declaration and Agenda 2, the action plan for the 21st century are two non-legally binding instruments adopted by the 1992 United Nations Conference on the Environment and Development (UNCED). While the Rio Declaration contains general principles and objectives, Agenda 21 contains detailed guidance on their practical implementation.

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Principle 4 of the Rio Declaration provides that in order to achieve sustainable development environmental protection shall constitute an integral part of the development process and cannot be considered in isolation from it. Principle 25 accentuates this by stating that peace, development and environmental protection are interdependent and indivisible. In an effort to control levels of air pollutants from industries sources, the Geneva Convention on long-range trans-boundary air pollution was signed. Other conventions include the convention on the law of the sea (1994). Conventions on nuclear accidents (Notification Assistance) 1986; the Montréal Protocol on substances that deplete the ozone layer, the Biological and toxin weapons etc

3.3.3. The World Commission on Environment and Development (The Brundtland Commission of 1987) The Commission in its 1987 report dubbed ―Our Common Future‖ focused on the environmental aspects of development, in particular the emphasis on sustainable development that produces no lasting damage to the biosphere and to particular ecosystems. In addition to environmental sustainability is economic and social sustainability. Economic sustainable development is development for which progress towards environmental and social sustainability occurs within available financial resources. While social sustainable development is development that maintains the cohesion of a society and its ability to help its members work together to achieve common goals, while at the same time meeting individual needs for health and well-being, adequate nutrition, and shelter, cultural expression and political involvement. The key aspect of sustainability is the interdependence of generations. The concept of ESIA is embodied in many multilateral environmental agreements. Principle 17 of the Rio Declaration provides that environmental impact assessment as a national instrument shall be undertaken for proposed activities that are likely to have a significant impact on the environment and are subject to a decision of a competent national authority. The IESIA study is in line with the World Commission on Environment and Development.

3.3.4. United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (UNCBD) UNCBD is guided by specific principle under Article 3 that States have, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations and the principles of international law, the sovereign right exploit

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their own resources pursuant to their own environmental policies and the responsibility to ensure that activities within their jurisdiction or control do not cause damage to the environment of other States or of areas beyond the limits of national jurisdiction. Article 4 gives Jurisdictional Scope of UNCBD and states that subject to the rights of other States, and except as otherwise expressly provided in this Convention, the provisions of this Convention apply, in relation to each Contracting Party as follows: (a) In the case of components of biological diversity, in areas within the limits of its national jurisdiction; and (b) In the case of processes and activities regardless of where their effects occur, carried out under its Jurisdiction or control, within the area of its national jurisdiction or beyond the limits of national jurisdiction.

Article 6 gives the general measures for conservation and sustainable use as follows: a) Develop national strategies, plans or programmes for the conservation and sustainable use of biolog1cal diversity or adapt for this purpose existing strategies, plans or programmes which shall reflect, inter alia, the measures set out in this Convention relevant to the Contracting Party concerned: and b) Integrate as far as possible and as appropriate the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity into relevant sectoral or cross-sectoral plans, programmes and policies. Article 7 provides for the process for identification and monitoring of Biodiversity. Each state is required as far as possible and as appropriate in particular for the purposes of Articles 8, 9 and 10 to: a) Identify components of biological diversity important for its conservation and sustainable use having regard to the indicative list of categories set down in Annex I: b) Monitor, through sampling and other techniques, the components of biological diversity identified pursuant to subparagraph (a) above, paying particular attention to those requiring urgent conservation measures and those which offer the greatest potential for sustainable use; c) Identify processes and categories of activities which have or are likely to have significant adverse impacts on the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, and monitor their effects through sampling and other techniques; and

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d) Maintain and organize, by any mechanism data, derived from identification and monitoring activities pursuant to subparagraphs (a), (b) and (c) above.

Article 8 provide for In-situ Conservation and require party states as far as possible and as appropriate to: a) Establish a system of protected areas or areas where special measures need to be taken to conserve biological diversity; b) Develop, where necessary, guidelines for the selection, establishment and management of protected areas or areas where special measures need to be taken to conserve biological diversity; c) Regulate or manage biological resources important for the conservation of biological diversity whether within or outside protected areas with a view to ensuring their conservation and sustainable use; d) Promote the protection of ecosystems, natural habitats and the maintenance of viable populations of species in natural surroundings; e) Promote environmentally sound and sustainable development in areas adjacent to protected areas with a view to furthering protection of these areas; f) Rehabilitate and restore degraded ecosystems and promote the recovery of threatened species inter alia through the development and implementation of plans or other management strategies; g) Establish or maintain means to regulate, manage or control the risks associated with the use and release of living modified organisms resulting from biotechnology which are likely to have adverse environmental impacts that could affect the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, taking also into account the risks to human health; h) Prevent the introduction of control or eradicate those alien species which threaten ecosystems, habitats or species; i) Endeavour to provide the conditions needed for compatibility between present uses and the conservation of biological diversity and the sustainable use of its components; j) Subject to its national legislation, respect, preserve and maintain knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and local communities embodying traditional lifestyles

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relevant for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity and promote their wider application with the approval and involvement of the holders of such knowledge, innovations and practices and encourage the equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the utilization of such knowledge, innovations and practices; k) Develop or maintain necessary legislation and/or other regulatory provisions for the protection of threatened species and populations; l) Where a significant adverse effect on biological diversity has been determined pursuant to Article 7, regulate or manage the relevant processes and categories of activities; and m) Cooperate in providing financial and other support for in-situ conservation outlined in subparagraphs (a) to (l) above particularly to developing countries.

Article 10 provides for sustainable use of components of biological diversity by each state party as far as possible and as appropriate as follows: a) Integrate consideration of the conservation and sustainable use of biological resources into national decision-making; b) Adopt measures relating to the use of biological resources to avoid or minimize adverse impacts on biological diversity; c) Protect and encourage customary use of biological resources in accordance with traditional cultural practices that are compatible with conservation or sustainable use requirements; support local populations to develop and implement remedial action in degraded areas where biolog1cal diversity has been reduced; and d) Encourage cooperation between its governmental authorities and its private sector in developing methods for sustainable use of biological resources.

Each contracting party (member) is required under Article 14 to conduct Environment Impact Assessment as a tool for and minimizing adverse impacts by: a) Introducing appropriate procedures requiring environmental impact assessment of its proposed projects that are likely to have significant adverse effects on biological diversity with a view to avoiding or minimizing such effects and, where appropriate, allow for public participation in such procedures;

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b) Introducing appropriate arrangements to ensure that the environmental consequences of its programmes and policies that are likely to have significant adverse impacts on biological diversity are duly taken into account; c) Promoting, on the basis of reciprocity, notification, exchange of information and consultation on activities under their jurisdiction or control which are likely to significantly affect adversely the biological diversity of other States or areas beyond the limits of national jurisdiction, by encouraging the conclusion of bilateral, regional or multilateral arrangements, as appropriate; d) In the case of imminent or grave danger or damage, originating under its jurisdiction or control, to biological diversity within the area under Jurisdiction of other States or in areas beyond the limits of national jurisdiction, notify immediately the potentially affected States of such danger or damage, as well as initiate action to prevent or minimize such danger or damage; and e) Promote national arrangements for emergency responses to activities or events, whether caused naturally or otherwise, which present a grave and imminent danger to biological diversity and encourage international cooperation to supplement such national efforts and, where appropriate and agreed by the States or regional economic integration organizations concerned, to establish joint contingency plans. The UNCBD establishes a global legally binding framework for the conservation of biodiversity, the sustainable use of it components and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising out of utilization of genetic resources. The provisions of this convention should be taken into account in the conservation of various species of plants, animals and the variety of ecosystems in the proposed degazettement of Ol Arabel Forest for Mochongoi Settlement Scheme. 3.3.5 Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) The parties to the Stockholm Convention committed to take ―into account the circ*mstances and particular requirements of developing countries, in particular the least developed among them, and countries with economies in transition, especially the need to strengthen their national capabilities for the management of chemicals, including through the transfer of technology, the provision of financial and technical assistance and the promotion of cooperation among the Parties‖; to take ―full account of the specific needs and special situation of least developed countries and small island developing states in their actions with regard to technical assistance‖ (Article 12); and to ―take full account of the specific needs and special situation of the least developed countries and the small island developing states in their actions with regard to funding‖ (Article 13).

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Kenya signed the Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants on 17th May 2004 and ratified it on 23rd December 2004. The objective of this convention is to protect human health and the environment from persistent organic pollutants. The convention was established to regulate the use of organic chemicals known to cause toxic reaction, persist for long periods in the environment, travel many kilometers and cause long-term consequences both to humans and environment which were never intended. The most popular of these chemicals are those popularly referred to as persistent organic pollutants include: 1. PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), 2. Dioxins and furans (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins or PCDDs, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans or PCDFs) 3. Nine pesticides (Aldrin, Chlordane, DDT, Dieldrin, Endrin, Heptachlor, Mirex, Hexachlorobenzene, and Toxaphene). Mochongoi Settlement Scheme need to avoid use of these organic chemicals especially agro- chemicals including pesticides, herbicides among others in crop and livestock production.

3.3.6 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is an intergovernmental treaty developed to address the problem of climate change. The Convention, which sets out an agreed framework for dealing with the issue, was negotiated from February 1991 to May 1992 and opened for signature at the June 1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) — also known as the Rio Earth Summit. The UNFCCC entered into force on 21 March 1994, ninety days after the 50th country‘s ratification had been received. By December 2007, it had been ratified by 192 countries.

Parties to the Convention continue to meet regularly to take stock of progress in implementing their obligations under the treaty, and to consider further actions to address the climate change threat. They have also negotiated a protocol to the Convention. The Kyoto Protocol was first agreed in December 1997 in Kyoto, Japan, although ongoing discussions were needed between 1998 and 2004 to finalize the ―fine print‖ of the agreement. The Protocol obliges industrialized countries and countries of the former Soviet bloc (known collectively as ―Annex I Parties‖) to

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cut their emissions of greenhouse gases by an average of about 5% for the period 2008-2012 compared with 1990 levels. However, under the terms agreed in Kyoto, the Protocol only enters into force following ratification by 55 Parties to the UNFCCC, and if these 55 countries included a sufficient number of Annex I Parties that at least 55% of that group‘s total carbon dioxide emissions for 1990 were represented. Although the world‘s largest emitter of greenhouse gases, the United States, rejected the Kyoto Treaty in 2001 after the election of President George W. Bush, a majority of other Annex I Parties, including Canada, Japan, and the countries of the European Union ratified the treaty. In November 2004, the Russian Federation also ratified the Protocol, thus reaching the 55% threshold. The Protocol finally entered into force as a legally- binding document on 16 February 2005. By December 2007, the Protocol had been ratified by 177 countries, including Annex I parties representing 63.7% of Annex I greenhouse gas emissions in 1990. With the immediate future of the Kyoto Protocol secured by Russia‘s ratification, an increasing focus of discussions since 2005 has been on the multilateral response to climate change post- 2012, when the Protocol‘s first commitment period expires. At the UN Climate Change Conference in Bali in December 2007, delegates agreed on a ―roadmap‖ for 2008 and 2009 designed to bring about an agreement by December 2009.

The ultimate objective of this Convention and any related legal instruments that the Conference of the Parties (COP) may adopt is to achieve, in accordance with the relevant provisions of the Convention, stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. Such a level should be achieved within a time frame sufficient to allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change, to ensure that food production is not threatened and to enable economic development to proceed in a sustainable manner.

UNFCCC is guided by several Principles. In their actions to achieve the objective of the Convention and to implement its provisions, the Parties shall be guided, inter alia, by the following principles: 1. The Parties should protect the climate system for the benefit of present and future generations of humankind, on the basis of equity and in accordance with their common

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but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities. Accordingly, the developed country Parties should take the lead in combating climate change and the adverse effects thereof. 2. The specific needs and special circ*mstances of developing country Parties, especially those that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change, and of those Parties, especially developing country Parties, that would have to bear a disproportionate or abnormal burden under the Convention, should be given full consideration. 3. The Parties should take precautionary measures to anticipate, prevent or minimize the causes of climate change and mitigate its adverse effects. Where there are threats of serious or irreversible damage, lack of full scientific certainty should not be used as a reason for postponing such measures, taking into account that policies and measures to deal with climate change should be cost-effective so as to ensure global benefits at the lowest possible cost. To achieve this, such policies and measures should take into account different socio-economic contexts, be comprehensive, cover all relevant sources, sinks and reservoirs of greenhouse gases and adaptation, and comprise all economic sectors. Efforts to address climate change may be carried out cooperatively by interested Parties. 4. The Parties have a right to, and should, promote sustainable development. Policies and measures to protect the climate system against human-induced change should be appropriate for the specific conditions of each Party and should be integrated with national development programmes, taking into account that economic development is essential for adopting measures to address climate change. 5. The Parties should cooperate to promote a supportive and open international economic system that would lead to sustainable economic growth and development in all Parties, particularly developing country Parties, thus enabling them better to address the problems of climate change. Measures taken to combat climate change, including unilateral ones, should not constitute a means of arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination or a disguised restriction on international trade Degazettement of Ol Arabel Forest for Mochongoi Settlement scheme need to take into account UNFCCCD by allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change without threatening food production and to enabling economic development to proceed in a sustainable manner. These

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measures include: agri-forestry, agri-silviculture and Conservation Agriculture (CA) and reduction of greenhouse gases. These measures act as carbon sinks and reservoirs of greenhouse gases and adaptation.

3.3.7 United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), 1994 UNCCD is a Convention to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought through national action programs that incorporate long-term strategies supported by international cooperation and partnership arrangements. UNCCD was drafted on 17TH June 1994, signed by parties between 14th October 1994 to 13th October 1995 and came into force on 26th December 1996. The Convention, the only convention stemming from a direct recommendation of the Rio Conference's Agenda 21, was adopted in Paris, France on 17 June 1994 and entered into force in December 1996. It is the only internationally legally binding framework set up to address the problem of desertification. The Convention is based on the principles of participation, partnership and decentralization—the backbone of Good Governance and Sustainable Development. It has 197 parties, making it near universal in reach. The Conference of the Parties (COP) oversees the implementation of the Convention. It is established by the Convention as the supreme decision-making body, and it comprises all ratifying governments. The first five sessions of the COP were held annually from 1997 to 2001. Starting 2001 sessions are held on a biennial basis interchanging with the sessions of the Committee for the Review of the Implementation of the Convention (CRIC), whose first session was held in 2002. The 7th Conference of Parties (COP7) was held in Nairobi, Kenya on 17 to 28 October 2005.

The Convention represents the only internationally legally binding framework set up to address desertification and mitigate the effects of drought. The UNCCD involves 196 parties and addresses environment and development to sustainable land management. Achieving this will involve long-term integrated strategies committed to a bottom-up approach. This has to be consistent with Agenda 21, encouraging the participation of local people by improving land productivity and the rehabilitation, conservation and sustainable management of land and water resources. The UNCCD secretariat facilitates cooperation between developed and developing

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countries, particularly around knowledge and technology transfer for sustainable land management. Degazettement of Ol Arabel Forest for Mochongoi Settlement scheme need to take into account UNCCD particularly on 10% land cover in every farm by maintaining and or increasing by rehabilitating degraded areas. In addition there is need for Agri-forestry, agri-silviculture and conservation agriculture on farms.

3.4. Relevant Government Environmental Policies and Sessional Papers Integrated Environmental and Social Impact Assessment (IESIA) study and an Environmental Report (ER) is a methodology used to identify the actual and probable impacts of projects and programmes on the environment and to recommend alternatives and mitigating measures. The difference between IESIA and ER is that ER is conducted for projects that have less negative impact on the environmental while IESIA study is conducted for projects that may pose great impact on the environment; socially, economically, emotionally, health-wise etc. On the other hand Environmental Audit is required for all on-going development projects and activities commenced prior to the coming into force of the Environmental Management and Coordination (Amendment) Act (EMCA) of 2015. The purpose of the Act is to ensure that all projects are designed, implemented and managed in such a way that they have no adverse environmental impacts and is environmentally sustainable. The Environmental Management and Coordination (Strategic Assessment, Integrated Impact Assessment and Audit) Regulations, 2018 were issued in accordance with the provisions of the EMCA (Amendment) of 2015. The administration of these regulations must take into consideration other relevant national laws and policies. The intention of the act is to approve and license only those projects that take into consideration all aspects of concern to the public as they impact on the health and quality of the environment.

3.4.1. Land Policy The National Land Policy (NLP) has a vision to guide the country towards a sustainable and equitable use of land. The land policy calls for immediate actions to addressing environmental problems that affect land such as degradation, soil erosion and pollution. For instance, the policy stipulates the principle of conservation and management of land based natural resources, the

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principle of protection and management of fragile and critical ecosystems including wetlands and arid lands. The policy further calls for extensive overhauls to current policies and institutions in an attempt to address chronic land tenure insecurity and inequity. The National Land Policy designates all land in Kenya as public, private (freehold or leasehold tenure), or community/trust land, which is held, managed and used by a specific community. This land policy has thus been formulated to address the critical issues of land administration, access to land, land use planning, restitution of historical injustices, environmental degradation, conflicts, unplanned proliferation of informal urban settlements, out-dated legal framework, institutional framework and information management.

3.4.2. Environment and Development Policy (Sessional Paper No.6 of 1999) This Sessional Paper elucidates on the connection between environment and development, highlighting the key environmental challenges. It provides priorities for action, implementation strategies and capacity building. It states that the overall goal is to integrate environmental concerns into the national planning and management processes and provide guidance for environmentally, socially and economically sustainable development. The objective of this policy paper is to harmonize environmental and developmental goals so as to ensure sustainability. The paper provides comprehensive guidelines and strategies for government action regarding the environment and development. The World Commission on Environment (The Brundtland Commission of 1987) recommends development that produces no lasting damage to the biosphere and to particular ecosystems. Economic sustainable development is development for which progress towards environmental and social sustainability occurs within available financial resources. Similarly, social sustainable development is development that maintains the cohesion of a society and its ability to help its members work together to achieve common goals, while at the same time meeting individual needs for health and well-being; adequate nutrition and shelter; cultural expression and political involvement. In accordance with the above policy the settlement scheme need to integrate agricultural and other land development with environmental conservation measures to ensure its sustainability.

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3.4.3. Private Sector Development Strategy 2006-2010 The strategy focuses on improving Kenya‘s business environment, institutional transformation, trade expansion, improved productivity and support to entrepreneurship and indigenous enterprise development. One of the key factors for the improvement of productivity is the adoption of modern, appropriate technologies for optimal uses of resources in order minimize wastage of resources and utilities such land (space), water, power and even time. The settlement scheme needs to practise modern agriculture and proper land use planning to optimally utilize available land sustainably.

3.4.4. Vision 2030 Vision 2030 is a government development strategy that is aimed at steering Kenya to a middle income country by the year 2030. It is based on the 3 pillars of political, social and economic advancement and it aims to transform the economy and achieve sustainable growth. Environmental considerations of development are contained within the social and economic pillar. On poverty reduction, the vision aims at creating opportunities for the poor by making institutions stronger. The proposed degazettement of Ol Arabel Forest for Mochongoi Settlement Scheme is in line with the Economic Recovery Strategy for Wealth and Employment Creation (ERS) which addresses issues of promoting sustainable livelihoods.

3.4.5. National Poverty Eradication Plan (NPEP) The NPEP has the objective of reducing the incidence of poverty in both rural and urban areas by 50 percent by the year 2015; as well as strengthening the capabilities of the poor and vulnerable groups to earn an income. It also aims at narrowing the gender and geographical disparities and at creating a healthy, educated and more productive population. This plan was been prepared in line with the goals and commitments of the World Summit for Social Development (WSSD) of 1995. The benefits of the proposed development Project are in line with the four focuses of the WSSD themes; of poverty eradication, reduction of unemployment, social integration of the disadvantaged people and the creation of an enabling economic, political, and cultural environment.

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3.4.6. The Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (1999) on Environment and Development (PRSP) This strategy paper was published by the Government in 2001. The two key goals of the strategy is poverty reduction and economic growth. The document outlines the priorities and measure necessary for poverty reduction and economic growth. The objectives of economic growth and poverty reduction are borne out of realization that economic growth is not a sufficient condition to ensure poverty reduction. In this regard, measures geared towards improved economic performance and priority actions that must be implemented to reduce the incidence of poverty among Kenyans have been identified. With respect to the environment the paper proposes that adequate awareness be created among stakeholders regarding environmental costs and benefits. It further calls for community involvement and participation in environmental management and conservation.

3.4.7 Forest Policy 2014 Forest Policy provides a framework for improved forest governance, resource allocation, partnerships and collaboration with the state and non-state actors to enable the sector contribute in meeting the country‘s growth and poverty alleviation goals within a sustainable environment. The Policy provides for sustainable development, management, utilization and conservation of forest resources and equitable sharing of accrued benefits for the present and future generations of the people of Kenya. The objectives include: (a) Increase and maintain tree and forest cover of at least ten percent of the land area of Kenya; (b) Establish an enabling legislative and institutional framework for development of the forest sector; (c) Support forestry research, education, training, information generation and dissemination, and technology transfer for sustainable development; (d) Promote public, private and community participation and partnership in forest sector development; (e) Promote investment in commercial tree growing, forest industry and trade; (f) Enhance management of forest resources for conservation of soil, water biodiversity and environmental stability. Forest resources offer a range of benefits and opportunities for local and national economic development, improved livelihoods and provision of environmental goods and services such as

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watershed protection and carbon sequestration. The forest resources need to be sustainably managed for present and future generations. Kenya is endowed with a wide range of forest ecosystems ranging from montane rainforests, savannah woodlands; dry forests and coastal forests and mangroves. The current forest cover is about 7% of the land area of the country is still below the constitutional requirement of 10%. Forests play critical ecological, social, cultural, and economic functions. They contribute directly and indirectly to the national and local economies through revenue generation and wealth creation, and it is estimated that forestry contributes to 3.6% of Kenya's GDP, excluding charcoal and Direct Subsistence Uses. Forests also support most productive and service sectors in the country, particularly agriculture, fisheries, livestock, energy, wildlife, water, tourism, trade and industry that contributes between 33% to 39 % of the country's GDP. Biomass comprises about 80% of all energy used in the country, while they also provide a variety of goods, which support subsistence livelihoods of many communities. The forestry services provided by the water towers include local climate regulation, water regulation, water purification and waste treatment and water pollution sinks. Other services provided include erosion control, natural hazard and disease regulation. Forest adjacent communities benefit directly through subsistence utilization of the forests. Forests comprise the country‘s water towers and catchments, where over 75% of the country's renewable surface water originate, and therefore serve critical water regulation roles which are important for human livelihoods, irrigated agriculture, and production of hydroelectric power. The Kenya constitution and economic blueprint Vision 2030 requires the country to work towards achieving a forest cover of at least 10% of the land area to ensure sustainable resource use, growth and employment creation. Due to population pressure in high potential areas, realizing these targets will require mobilizing communities and the private sector to invest in commercial forestry, expansion of forestry development to arid and semi-arid areas, investment in industry for enhanced processing efficiency and value addition, strengthening of forest governance policies and institutions, and greater consideration of forestry in development programmes such as in agriculture, energy, tourism, and water programmes. Further, the constitution requires that international environmental agreements, protocols and conventions to which Kenya is a signatory be domesticated and implemented within sectoral policies and laws.

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The Forests Act (2005) introduced participatory forest management, through the engagement of local communities, and the promotion of the private sector investment in gazetted forest reserves, accompanied by concomitant institutional and organization change, notably the establishment of the Kenya Forest Service (KFS), and the formation of Community Forest Associations. Compliant with the objectives of the national development agenda and the constitution, the forest sector envisage increasing forest cover from the current 7% to 10%. There are emerging opportunities for sustainable forest financing both at national and international level. In addition, the Civil Society Organizations, the local communities and county governments are more organized and informed to be mainstreamed into the forestry sector decision-making and resource management processes. The Forest Policy provides a broad range of measures and actions responding to the challenges faced by the forest sector. There are a number of strategic initiatives to improve and develop the forest resource base; integrate good governance, transparency, and accountability, equity and poverty reduction into the forest. The policy is informed by the Constitution, national land policy, County Government Act, 2012, Inter-governmental Relations Act, 2012, Land Act, 2012 as well as the National Climate Change Response Strategy, which underscores forestry‘s unique role in both climate change mitigation and adaptation. In addition the policy is aligned to Forest Conservation and Management Act 2016 and Forest Rules 2009. The policy, principles, legislation and rules provides for: a) A clear division of responsibilities between public sector institutions where Ministry responsible for forestry provides an oversight role in national forest policy formulation, and regulatory function of the sector, thereby allowing Kenya Forest Service to focus on the management of forests on public land, and the role of the County governments in implementing national policies, County forest programmes including the delivery of forest extension services to communities, farmers and private land owners, and management of forests other than those under Kenya Forest Service. b) The devolution of community forest conservation and management, implementation of national forest policies and strategies, deepening of community participation in forest management by the strengthening of community forestry associations, and the introduction of benefit-sharing arrangements.

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c) The preparation of a national strategy to increase and maintain forest and tree cover to at least 10% of the total land area and for the rehabilitation and restoration of degraded forest ecosystems, and the establishment of a national forest resource monitoring system. d) The adoption of an ecosystem approach for the management of forests, and recognition of customary rights and user rights to support sustainable forest management and conservation. e) The establishment of national programmes to support community forest management and afforestation/reforestation on community and private land. f) The preparation of national standards for forest management and utilization, and the development of codes of conduct for professional forestry associations. g) The introduction of a chain-of-custody system for timber and wood products, and legal origin and compliance certificates for exporters of timber and wood products. Forest Policy implementation is guided by the following principles: (a) Public good: Taking into consideration the multiple roles played by forests, all forests shall be taken to serve a common good interest irrespective of ownership. This implies that any action taken in any forest shall be regulated to safeguard public interest. (b) Ecosystem approach: An integrated ecosystem approach to conserving and managing forest resources shall be adopted and enhanced to ensure that all forest ecosystems are managed in an integrated manner for the benefit of the people of Kenya. (c) Sustainable Forest Management (SFM): All forest resources shall be managed sustainably to yield social, economic and ecological goods and services for the current generation without compromising similar rights of future generations; (d) Good governance: The rule of law, effective institutions, access to information, transparency and accountability, professional ethics, respect for human rights, non- discrimination and the meaningful participation of citizens shall be integrated in forest conservation and management. (e) Public participation: Participatory approaches in forest conservation and management need shall be enhanced to ensure that the relevant government agencies, county governments, private sector, civil society and communities are involved in planning, implementation and decision making processes.

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(f) Polluter and User Pays: The polluter and user of forest resources shall be responsible for paying for the full environmental and social costs of the damage done to the natural environment as a result of their activities. (g) Commercialization of forestry activities: Forestry operations shall be undertaken in a business manner focusing on result based management. The Government will therefore invite private sector to invest in tree growing, wood processing and value addition. (h) Ecologically and fragile areas: Special consideration shall be taken to conserve ecologically fragile areas in order to conserve biodiversity, soil and water. (i) Research, education and knowledge: Key decisions on forest management and conservation shall be informed by forestry science founded on appropriate knowledge derived from research, professionalism and international best practice. (j) Livelihood enhancement: Livelihood improvement with a focus on fighting poverty shall be a major consideration for all strategies and programmes in forest sector development. (k) Indigenous knowledge and intellectual property rights: Indigenous knowledge and intellectual property rights embodied in forest biodiversity and genetic resources shall be harnessed and protected. (l) International and regional cooperation: Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs) and other regional instruments need to be domesticated and implemented for sustainable forest management in accordance with the Constitution and other established legal and regulatory mechanisms. Land is emotive in Kenya and particularly Mochongoi. Forest on the other hand supplies important economic, environmental, recreational, scientific, social, cultural and spiritual benefits. However, many of these forests have been subjected to land use changes such as conversion to farmlands, urban centres and settlements, reducing their ability to supply forest products and serve as water catchments, biodiversity conservation reservoirs, wildlife habitats and carbon sinks. There is need therefore for Community Forest Association (CFA) to promote sustainable conservation, management and utilization of forest resources within Mochongoi and ensure that 10% forest/vegetation cover is maintained in agricultural lands/farms/plots.

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3.5. Land Tenure, Land Use and Environmental Legislation Land tenure refers to the terms and conditions under which rights to land and land based resources are acquired, held, transferred or transmitted. Land tenure systems fall into three basic categories: private modern communal or customary and public or state. Under private tenure, property rights are assigned to the individual while under the communal tenure system, these rights are assigned to a group of individuals. Public tenure obtains in the former Crown lands and includes national parks, forest land, alienated and unalienated land. Land use on the other hand refers to the utilization of land for agriculture, tourism, grazing, wildlife management, forestry, water conservation, etc. These are all valid and nationally productive uses of land. They are however competing and often give rise to land use conflicts. The main statutes that regulate land ownership, land use and environmental issues in Kenya are discussed in detail below.

3.5.1. Constitution of Kenya Article 60 clause (1) states that Land in Kenya shall be held, used and managed in a manner that is equitable, efficient, productive and sustainable. Land (all) belongs to the people of Kenya collectively as a nation, as communities and as individuals. It is classified as Public, community or private. Public land (article 62, clause (1)) includes but limited to: a) unalienated government land; f) all minerals and mineral oils; g) government forests, government game reserves, water catchment areas, national parks, government animal sanctuaries and protected areas; h) all roads; i) all rivers, lakes and other water bodies as defined by an Act of Parliament; j) the territorial sea, the exclusive economic zone and the sea bed; k) the continental shelf; l) all land between the high and low water marks; m) any land not classified as private or community land under the constitution. Community land (article 63, clause (1)) is land held by communities identified on the basis of ethnicity, culture or similar community interest. Under article 63, clause (2), it includes: a) land lawfully registered in the name of group representatives; b) transferred lawfully to community or c) declared as such by an Act of Parliament. Under article 63, clause (2), paragraph (d), it also includes: land that is i) lawfully held, managed or used by specified communities as community forests, grazing areas or shrines; ii) ancestral lands and lands occupied by hunters-gatherer communities. Clause (3) states that any unregistered community land shall be held in trust by

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the county government on behalf of the communities for which land is held and clause (4) prohibits disposal or use except in terms of legislation specifying the nature and extent of the rights of the members of each community individually and collectively. Private land (article 64) on the other hand is land held or registered by any person under freehold tenure or any land declared private under an Act of Parliament. The new constitution under article 66, clause (1) empowers the state to regulate when necessary the use of any land, or any interest in or right over any land, in the interest of defence, public safety, public order, public morality, public health or land use planning. For the purpose of sustainable management of environment, the state is obliged under article 69, clause (1) to: a) ensure sustainable exploitation, utilization, management and conservation of the environment and natural resources and ensure the equitable sharing of the accruing benefits; b) work to achieve and maintain a tree cover of at least ten per cent of the land area of Kenya; d) encourage public participation in the management, protection and conservation of environment; e) protect genetic resources and biological diversity; f) establish systems of environment impact assessment, environmental audit and monitoring of the environment; g) eliminate processes and activities that are likely to endanger the environment and h) utilize the environment and natural resources for the benefit of the people of Kenya. Under clause (2), every person has the duty to cooperate with the state organs and other persons to protect and conserve the environment and ensure ecologically sustainable development and use of natural resources. Article 70 deals with enforcement of environmental rights. Clause (1) states that if a person alleges that a right to a clean and healthy environment recognized and protected under article 42 has been, is being or is likely to be, denied, violated, infringed or threatened, the person may apply to a court for redress in addition to any other remedies that are available in respect to the same matter.

3.5.2. National Land Commission Act No. 28 of 2016 This an Act of Parliament to make further provision as to the functions and powers of the National Land Commission, qualifications and procedures for appointments to the Commission; to give effect to the objects and principles of devolved government in land management and administration, and for connected purposes.

The object and purpose of the Act is to provide for:

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(a) The management and administration of land in accordance with the principles of land policy set out in Article 60 of the Constitution and the national land policy; (b) The operations, powers, responsibilities and additional functions of the Commission pursuant to Article 67(3) of the Constitution; (c) A legal framework for the identification and appointment of the chairperson, members and the secretary of the Commission pursuant to Article 250 (2) and (12) (a) of the Constitution; (d) A linkage between the Commission, county governments and other institutions dealing with land and land related resources.

Section 5 (1) of the Act gives the functions of the Commission pursuant to Article 67(2) of the Constitution including: (a) Management of public land on behalf of the national and county governments; (b) Recommending a national land policy to the national government; (c) Advising the national government on a comprehensive programme for the registration of title in land throughout Kenya; (d) Conducting research related to land and the use of natural resources, and make recommendations to appropriate authorities; (e) Initiating investigations, on its own initiative or on a complaint, into present or historical land injustices, and recommend appropriate redress; (f) Encouraging the application of traditional dispute resolution mechanisms in land conflicts; (g) Assessing tax on land and premiums on immovable property in any area designated by law; (h) Monitoring and have oversight responsibilities over land use planning throughout the country. Section 15 (1) states that ―pursuant to Article 67 (3) of the Constitution, the Commission shall receive, admit and investigate all historical land injustice complaints and recommend appropriate redress‖. Sub section 2 indicates that, a historical land injustice is a grievance which: (a) Was occasioned by a violation of right in land on the basis of any law, policy, declaration, administrative practice, treaty or agreement; (b) Resulted in displacement from their habitual place of residence; (c) Occurred between 15th June 1895 when Kenya became a protectorate under the British East African Protectorate and 27th August, 2010 when the Constitution of Kenya was promulgated;

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Sub section 9 allows the Commission to recommend the following remedies for historical land injustice: (a) restitution; (b) compensation, if it is impossible to restore the land; (c) resettlement on an alternative land; (d) rehabilitation through provision of social infrastructure; (e) affirmative action programmes for marginalized groups and communities; (f) creation of way leaves and easem*nts; (g) order for revocation and reallocation of the land; (h) order for revocation of an official declaration in respect of any public land and reallocation; (i) sale and sharing of the proceeds; (j) refund to bona fide third party purchasers after valuation; or (k) declaratory and preservation orders including injunctions. Sub Section 10 states that ―Upon determination of a historical land injustice claim by the Commission, any authority mandated to act under the redress recommended shall be required to do so within three years‖. The commission is obliged by Section 17 of the Act to work in consultation and co-operation with the national and county governments subject to Article 10 and Article 232 of the Constitution.

3.5.3. The Land Act, 2012 (Legal Notice 6) This provides the body of Kenya‘s substantive law, earlier found scattered in different pieces of legislation like the Indian Transfer of Property Act 1882, The Government Lands Act and the Registered Land Act. It repeals the Way leaves Act Cap 292 and the Land Acquisition Act Cap 295. The law has the effect of embodying Kenya‘s substantive law in one statute which makes easy reference for scholars and practitioners. This is an Act of Parliament to give effect to Article 68 of the Constitution, to revise, consolidate and rationalize land laws; to provide for the sustainable administration and management of land and land based resources, and for connected purposes. It was assented on 27th April, 2012 and commenced 2nd May, 2012. The Act applies to all land declared as: (a) public land under Article 62 of the Constitution; (b) private land under Article 64 of the Constitution; and (c) community land under Article 63 of the Constitution and any other written law relating to community land. The utilization of land resources under any category of land provided in the constitution, this act or any other written law is guided by the following values and principles of land management and administration (a) Equitable access to land; (b) Security of land rights;

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(c) Sustainable and productive management of land resources; (d) Transparent and cost effective administration of land; (e) Conservation and protection of ecologically sensitive areas; (f) Elimination of gender discrimination in law, customs and practices related to land and property in land; (g) Encouragement of communities to settle land disputes through recognized local community initiatives; (h) Participation, accountability and democratic decision making within communities, the public and the Government; (i) Technical and financial sustainability; (j) Affording equal opportunities to members of all ethnic groups; (k) Non-discrimination and protection of the marginalized; and (l) Democracy, inclusiveness and participation of the people; and (m) Alternative dispute resolution mechanisms in land dispute handling and management. Section 11 mandates the Land Commission to identify and conserve ecologically sensitive public land that has endangered or endemic species of flora and fauna, critical habitats or protected areas. It includes demarcation or taking any other justified action on those areas and act to prevent environmental degradation and climate change.

The land Act (s.161) repeals the laws given in the schedule and all other laws relating to land are construed with the alterations, adaptations, qualifications and exceptions necessary to give effect to this Act. Section 162(1) states that ―unless the contrary is specifically provided in this Act, any right, interest, title, power, or obligation acquired, accrued, established, coming into force or exercisable before the commencement of this Act shall continue to be governed by the law applicable to it immediately prior to the commencement of this Act‖. Any dispute arising out of any matter provided for under this Act may be referred to the Land and Environment Court for determination.

3.5.4 Land Registration Act, 2012 This law will be the singular law to guide the registration of title to land in Kenya, earlier done under various statutes like the Land Titles Act Cap 282 earlier applicable to properties within the ten mile Coastal strip and the Registration of Titles Act Cap 281 earlier operated under a Centralized Land Registry at Nairobi for properties surveyed under precise boundaries. It also

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repealed the Registered Land Act Cap 300 which applied to most rural properties surveyed under general boundaries and some few urban properties surveyed under the ―fixed boundary‖ provisions of the Act. This Land Registration Act also repealed the Indian Transfer of Property Act 1882 and the Government Lands Act Cap 280. The application of this law will result in a uniform land registration system and uniform registries countrywide. This will ease land transactions and land development in the country. This Act received presidential assent on 27th April 2012 with a commencement date of 2nd May 2012. Section 24 (a) of land registration Act 2012, stipulates that the registration of a person as the proprietor of land shall vest in that person the absolute ownership of that land together with all rights and privileges belonging or appurtenant thereto. In addition subsection (b) indicates that the registration of a person as the proprietor of a lease shall vest in that person the leasehold interest described in the lease, together with all implied and expressed rights and privileges belonging or appurtenant thereto and subject to all implied or expressed agreements, liabilities or incidents of the lease. Section 25 subsection 1 states that the rights of a proprietor, whether acquired on first registration or subsequently for valuable consideration or by an order of court, shall not be liable to be defeated except as provided in this Act, and shall be held by the proprietor, together with all privileges and appurtenances belonging thereto, free from all other interests and claims whatsoever, but subject to the leases, charges and other encumbrances and to the conditions and restrictions, if any, shown in the register; and (b) to such liabilities, rights and interests as affect the same and are declared by section 28 not to require noting on the register, unless the contrary is expressed in the register. However the proprietor under subsection 2 shall not be relieved from any duty or obligation to which the person is subject to as a trustee. Certificate of title held by proprietor shall be conclusive evidence of absolute and indefeasible owner, subject to the encumbrances, easem*nts, restrictions and conditions contained or endorsed in the certificate, and the title of that proprietor shall not be subject to challenge, except: (a) on the ground of fraud or misrepresentation to which the person is proved to be a party; or (b) where the certificate of title has been acquired illegally, unprocedurally or through a corrupt scheme.

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3.5.5 The Community Land Act No. 27 of 2016 This is an Act of Parliament to give effect to Article 63 (5) of the Constitution; to provide for the recognition, protection and registration of community land rights; management and administration of community land; to provide for the role of county governments in relation to unregistered community land and for connected purposes. It was assented on 31st August, 2016 and commenced on 21st September, 2016. In order to eliminate any doubt with respect to interpretation of the core terms used in this Act, the meaning of the terms are defined below: Community means a consciously distinct and organized group of users of community land who are citizens of Kenya and share any of the following attributes: (a) common ancestry; (b) similar culture or unique mode of livelihood; (c) socio-economic or other similar common interest; (d) geographical space; (e) ecological space; or (f) ethnicity. Community land means land declared as such under Article 63(2) of the Constitution. Registered community means a community that has completed the registration processes and is recognized under this law Community reserve land means any land set aside for communal or land allocated by the registered community for individual occupation and use; Certificate of reservation means a certificate issued in the interim by the Registrar pending the registration of community land and acquisition of the certificate of title. Community tenure system means unwritten land ownership practices in certain communities in which land is owned or controlled by a family, clan or a designated community leader. Fragile ecosystem means an ecosystem hosting threatened biodiversity Part II of the Act provides for recognition, protection and registration of community land rights. Section 4 (3) states that ―Community land shall vest in the community and may be held under any of the following tenure systems: (a) customary; (b) freehold; (c) leasehold; and (d) such other tenure system recognized under this Act or other written law. Sub section 2 allows the state to regulate the use of community land in accordance with Article 66 of the Constitution subject to the provisions of this Act or any other written law. Section 5 (1) states that ―Every person shall have the right, either individually or in association with others, to acquire and own property, in accordance with Article 40 of the Constitution: (a) of any description; and (b) in any part of Kenya. Sub section 2 states that

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―Customary land rights shall be recognized, adjudicated for and documented for purposes of registration in accordance with this Act and any other written law‖. Under sub section 3, customary land rights, including those held in common shall have equal force and effect in law with freehold or leasehold rights acquired through allocation, registration or transfer. Sub section 4 prohibits the state from compulsorily acquisition of community land except in accordance with the law (Article 40 (3) of the Constitution and the Land Act) for a public purpose, and upon prompt payment of just compensation to the person or persons, in full or by negotiated settlement. Sub section 5 states that ―subject to the provisions of section 46 of this Act, any person who immediately before the commencement of this Act had a subsisting customary right to hold or occupy land shall upon commencement of this Act continue to hold such right‖. Section 6 (1) gives the responsibility County governments to hold in trust all unregistered community land on behalf of the communities for which it is held. In addition (s. s. 2), the respective county government shall hold in trust for a community any monies payable as compensation for compulsory acquisition of any unregistered community land. Sub section 3 states that ―Upon registration of community land, the respective county government shall promptly release to the community all such monies payable for compulsory acquisition‖. Sub section 7 states that ―Upon the registration of any unregistered community land in accordance with this Act, the respective registered community shall, assume the management and administrative functions provided in this Act and the trustee role of the respective county government in relation to the land shall cease‖. Sub section 8 prohibits County governments from selling, disposing, transferring, converting for private purposes or in any other way disposing of any unregistered community land that it is holding in trust on behalf of the communities for which it is held. Section 7 (1) allows community claiming an interest in or right over community land to be registered in accordance with the provisions of this section (s.7). Section 11 (1) states that ―Community land shall be registered in accordance with the provisions of this Act and the Land Registration Act, 2012‖.

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The community land under section 12 of this Act recognizes land holding as: (a) communal land; (b) family or clan land; (c) as reserve land; or (d) any other category of land recognized under this Act or other written law. Under section 13 (3) of the Act, a registered community may reserve special purpose areas including areas for: (a) farming; (b) settlement; (c) community conservation; (d) cultural and heritage sites; (e) urban development; or (f) any other purposes as may be determined by the community, respective county government or national government for the promotion or upgrading of public interest. Section 14 (2) states that a customary right of occupancy on any community land subsisting before the commencement of this Act shall upon the commencement of this Act be a recognizable right of occupancy in the respective community land subject to Article 40 (6) of the Constitution‖. Part VII, section 35 of the Act requires sustainable and productive management of Environment and Natural Resources for equitable benefit of the whole community including future generations Management.

3.5.6. The Physical and Land Use Planning Act No. 13 of 2019 This is an Act of Parliament to make provision for the planning, use, regulation and development of land and for connected purposes. It was assented on 16th July 2019 and commenced on 5th August, 2019. Section 4 requires major developments to be subjected to environmental and social impact assessment. Section 8 states that ―Where the development involves the erection of a building, the county government will consider the following.‖ a) The use of the building; b) The sitting of the building within the plot; c) The elevations of the building, plinth area, canopies and height of buildings; d) The design, shape, civic design and facade and appearance of the building; e) The set back and the building line; f) Access to and parking on land which the building is to be erected;

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g) Loading bay; h) Density; i) Plot coverage; j) Provision for rainwater harvesting facilities and water storage tanks in every building; k) Landscaping; l) Character; m) Ventilation and lighting; n) Infrastructure adequacy; o) Environmental, health and cultural considerations; and p) Any other matter that a county government considers necessary for purposes of planning. Section 5 of the Act requires every person engaged in physical and land use planning and regulation shall adhere to the following principles and norms of physical and land use planning: a) Physical and land use planning shall promote sustainable use of land and liveable communities which integrates human needs in any locality; b) Development activities shall be planned in a manner that integrates economic, social and environmental needs of present and future generations; c) Physical and land use planning shall be comprehensive, sustainable and integrated at all levels of government, taking into consideration the interests of all parties concerned; d) Physical and land use planning shall take into consideration long-term optimum utilization of land and conservation of scarce land resource including preservation of land With important functions; e) Physical and land use planning shall be inclusive and must take into consideration the culture and heritage of people concerned; and f) Physical and land use planning shall take into account new approaches such as transit- oriented development, mixed land-uses, planning for public transport and non-motorized transport among others to achieve sustainable development and more efficient use of natural resources. The National Physical and Land Use Development Plan under section 22 (1) define strategic policies for the determination of the general direction and trends of physical, and sectoral development in Kenya and provide a framework for the use and development of land.

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The basis of, the National Physical and Land Use Development Plan under sub section 2 of the act include: (a) Environmental conservation, protection and improvement; (b) Promoting social and economic development including national competitiveness; (c) Promoting balanced national development; (d) Optimal use of land and natural resources; (e) Formulation of national physical and land use development planning policies; (f) Guiding inter-county, county and local planning; (g) Coordinating sectoral planning and development; (h) Managing human settlements; and (i) Providing a framework for guiding the location and development of strategic national investments and infrastructural development. Section 36 (l) of the Act requires the county Government to prepare county physical and land use development plan once in every ten years. Sub section 2 requires each county physical and land use development plan to be in conformity with the National Physical and Land Use Development Plan and any relevant Inter-County Physical and Land Use Development Plan. Section 37 gives the objectives of a county physical and land use development plan including: a) Provision an overall physical and land use development framework for the county; b) Guiding rural development and settlement; c) Provision t h e basis for infrastructure and services delivery; d) Guiding the use and management of natural resources; e) Enhancing environmental protection and conservation; f) Identification the proper zones for industrial, commercial, residential and social developments; g) Improvement transport and communication networks and linkages; h) Promotion of the safeguarding of national security; and i) Any other purposes that may be determined by the planning authority. County is in addition empowered to require a development applicant to submit an EIA report where a proposed development is considered of potential injurious impacts on the environment,

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(Section 36). EMCA echoes the same by requiring that such an EIA is approved by the NEMA and should be followed by annual environmental audits.

3.5.7 The Energy Act No. 1 of 2019 This is an Act of Parliament to consolidate the laws relating to energy, to provide for National and County Government functions in relation to energy, to provide for the establishment, powers and functions of the energy sector entities; promotion of renewable energy; exploration, recovery and commercial utilization of geothermal energy; regulation of midstream and downstream petroleum and coal activities; regulation, production, supply and use of electricity and other energy forms; and for connected purposes. It was assented on 12th March, 2019 and commenced on 28th March, 2019. Energy under this Act means any source of electrical, mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic, chemical, nuclear, or thermal power for any use; and includes electricity, petroleum, coal, geothermal, biomass and all its derivatives, municipal waste, solar, wind and tidal wave power; "renewable energy means non-fossil energy generated from natural non-depleting resources including but not limited to solar energy, wind energy, biomass energy, biological waste energy, hydro energy, geothermal energy and ocean and tidal energy. It is the obligation of the government under section 7 (1) to facilitate the provision of affordable energy services to all persons in Kenya. Section 73 vests all unexploited renewable energy resources under or in any land in the National Government subject to any rights which, by or under any written law, have been or are granted or recognized as being vested in any other person. Section 75 (1) requires the Cabinet Secretary to promote the development and use of renewable energy technologies, including but not limited to biomass, biodiesel, bioethanol, charcoal, fuel wood, solar, wind, tidal waves, hydropower, biogas and municipal waste.

Sub section 2 empowers the Cabinet Secretary to promote the development and use of renewable energy, including but not limited to: a) Formulating a national strategy for coordinating research in renewable energy;

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b) Providing an enabling framework for the efficient and sustainable production, distribution and marketing of biomass, solar, wind, small hydros, municipal waste, geothermal and charcoal; c) Promoting the use of fast maturing trees for energy production including biofuels and the establishment of commercial woodlots including peri-urban plantations; d) Promoting the use of municipal waste for energy production; e) Promoting the development of appropriate local capacity for the manufacture, installation, maintenance and operation of basic renewable technologies such as bio- digesters, solar systems and turbines; f) Promoting international cooperation on renewable energy programmes focusing on sources; g) Harnessing opportunities offered under clean development mechanism and other mechanisms including, but not limited to, carbon credit trading to promote the development and exploitation of renewable energy sources; h) Promoting the utilization of renewable energy sources for either power generation or transportation; i) Promoting co-generation of electric power by sugar millers and sale of such electric power through the National Grid directly to the consumers; and j) Promoting the production and use of gasohol and biodiesel. Section 187 requires Energy and Petroleum Regulatory Authority coordinate the development and implementation of a prudent national energy efficiency and conservation programme.

Section B of the Fifth Schedule of the Act defines the functions of the county governments with respect to energy planning including: a) Preparation of County energy plans, incorporating petroleum, renewable energy and electricity master plans. b) Physical planning relating to energy resource areas such as dams, solar and wind farms, municipal waste dumpsites, agricultural and animal waste, ocean energy, woodlots and plantations for production bio energy feedstock. c) Provision of land and rights of way for energy infrastructure.

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d) Facilitation of energy demand by planning for industrial parks and other energy consuming activities. e) Preparation and implementation of disaster management plans.

3.5.8 Agriculture, Fisheries and Food Authority Act No. 13 of 2013 This is an Act of Parliament to provide for the consolidation of the laws on the regulation and promotion of agriculture generally, to provide for the establishment of the Agriculture, Fisheries and Food Authority, to make provision for the respective roles of the national and county governments in agriculture excluding livestock and related matters in furtherance of the relevant provisions of the Fourth Schedule to the Constitution and for connected purposes. It was assented on14th January, 2013 and commenced 17th January, 2014.

Section 23 provides for land preservation guidelines. Sub section 1 states that ―The Cabinet Secretary, on the advice of the Authority, and in consultation with the National Land Commission, for the purposes of the conservation of the soil, or the prevention of the adverse effects of soil erosion on, any land, may, prescribe national guidelines for any or all of the following matters:‖ a) Prohibiting, regulating or controlling the undertaking of any agricultural activity including the firing, clearing or destruction of vegetation when such prohibiting, regulating or controlling is deemed by the Cabinet Secretary to be necessary for the protection of land against degradation, the protection of water catchment areas or otherwise, for the preservation of the soil and its fertility; b) Requiring, regulating or controlling: i. The afforestation or re-afforestation of land; ii. The drainage of land, including the construction, maintenance or repair of drains, gullies, contour banks, terraces and diversion ditches; iii. Salination, acidification and saltification of soil; c) Requiring the uprooting or destruction, without payment of any compensation therefor, of any vegetation which has been planted in contravention of a land preservation order; d) Requiring the supervision of unoccupied land;

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e) Prohibiting, restricting or controlling the use of land for any agricultural purpose excluding livestock. Section 29 of the Act gives the respective roles of national and county governments. Sub section 1 gives the county government the responsibility for agricultural matters in accordance with Part 2 of Fourth Schedule to the Constitution. On the other hand sub section 2 gives the National government the responsibility for agricultural policy and for assisting the county governments on agricultural matters in accordance with Part 1 of section 29 of the Fourth Schedule to the Constitution,. Sub section 3 empowers the county government enact, administer and implement legislation for purposes of ensuring uniformity and national standards in the agricultural sector and act in accordance with the national policy guidelines issued by the Cabinet Secretary on the advice of the authority under this Act.

Section 32 empowers the county government to make a land preservation order against the owner or occupier of land, or against both the owner and occupier either at the same time or at different times. Section 30 states that ―A person who contravenes or fails to comply with the terms of a land development order commits an offence and shall be liable, on conviction, to a fine not exceeding one hundred thousand shillings or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding three years, or both, and in the case of a continuing offence to a fine not exceeding fifty thousand shillings for every day of which the offence continues.‖

3.5.9. Water Act No. 43 of 2016 (Chapter 372 of Laws of Kenya) This is an ACT of Parliament to provide for the regulation, management and development of water resources, water and sewerage services; and for other connected purposes. It was assented on 13th September, 2016. PART II section (5) of the act states that ―Every water resource is vested in and held by the national government in trust for the people of Kenya‖.

Section 9 gives every person has the right to access water resources, whose administration is the function of the national government as stipulated in the Fourth Schedule to the Constitution. Part III, section (11) establishes Water Resource Authority (WRA) for regulation of the management and use of water resources including receive water permit applications for water abstraction,

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water use and recharge and determine, issue, vary water permits; and enforce the conditions of those permits.

Section 40 gives the procedure for application of water permit. Section 40 sub section 4 states that ―An application for a permit shall be the subject of public consultation and, where applicable, of environmental impact assessment in accordance with the requirements of the Environmental Management and Co- ordination (Amendment) Act, 2015‖.

Section 143 sub section 1(a) prohibits un authorized willful obstruction, interference, diversion of water from any watercourse or any water resource, or negligently allowing any such obstruction, interference, diversion or abstraction; or (b) throw, convey, cause or permit to be thrown or conveyed, any rubbish, dirt, refuse, effluent, trade waste or other offensive matter or thing into or near to any water resource in such manner as to cause, or be likely to cause, pollution of the water resource.

3.5.10. Public Health Act Chapter 242 of the Laws of Kenya This is an Act of Parliament that makes provision for securing and maintaining health. It regulates activities detrimental to human health. Part IX, contains provision regarding sanitation and housing. Section 115 of the Act states that no person shall cause nuisance or cause to exist on any land or premises any condition liable to be injurious or dangerous to human health. An environmental nuisance is one that causes danger, discomfort or annoyance to the local inhabitants or which is hazardous to human health. Section 116 requires that Counties take all lawful, necessary and reasonably practicable measures to maintain their jurisdiction clean and sanitary to prevent occurrence of nuisance or condition liable to be injurious or dangerous to human health. Such nuisance or conditions are defined under section 118 as waste pipes, sewers, drainers or refuse pits in such state, situated or constructed as in the opinion of the medical officer of health to be offensive or injurious to health. Any noxious matter or waste water flowing or discharged from any premises into the public street or into the gutter or side channel or watercourse, irrigation channel, or bed not approved for discharge is also deemed as nuisance. Other nuisances are accumulation of

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materials or refuse which in the opinion of the medical officer of health is likely to harbour rats or other vermin. The Act also contains provisions on discharges of pollutants into water sources. On responsibility of the Local Authorities Part XI, section 129, of the Act states in part ―It shall be the duty of every county to take all lawful, necessary and reasonably practicable measures for preventing any pollution dangerous to health of any supply of water which the public within its district has a right to use and does use for drinking or domestic purposes. Part XII, Section 136, states that all collections of water, sewage, rubbish, refuse and other fluids which permit or facilitate the breeding or multiplication of pests shall be deemed nuisances under this Act. This part seeks to guard against the breeding of mosquito which is key as they cause malaria which is one of the major causes of death in this country. The owner(s) of the premises responsible for environmental nuisances such as noise and emissions, at levels that can affect human health, are liable to prosecution under this Act. There is for people in Mochongoi Settlement Scheme to construct sanitary facilities at every homestead preferably VIP Latrine to reduce open defecation (OD) and subsequent environment pollution especially water.

3.5.11 The Wildlife Conservation and Management Act No. 47 of 2013 This is an Act of Parliament to provide for the protection, conservation, sustainable use and management of wildlife in Kenya and for connected purposes. The Act was assented on 24th December 2013 and commenced on 10th January 2014. The Act under Section 4 is guided by the following principles: a) Wildlife conservation and management shall be devolved, wherever possible and appropriate to those owners and managers of land where wildlife occurs; b) Conservation and management of wildlife shall entail effective public participation; c) Wherever possible the conservation and management of wildlife shall be encouraged using an ecosystem approach; d) Wildlife conservation and management shall be encouraged and recognized as a form of land use on public, community and private land; e) Benefits of wildlife conservation shall be derived by the land user in order to offset costs and to ensure the value and management of wildlife do not decline;

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f) Wildlife conservation and management shall be exercised in accordance with the principles of sustainable utilization to meet the benefits of present and future generations; g) Benefits accruing from wildlife conservation and management shall be enjoyed and equitably shared by the people of Kenya. Section 5 (2) of the national wildlife conservation and management strategy provides for the principles, objectives, standards, indicators, procedures and incentives for the protection, conservation, management sustainable utilization and control of wildlife resources particularly: a) Measures for the protection of wildlife species and their habitats and ecosystems; b) Norms and standards for ecosystem-based conservation plans; c) Measures facilitating community-based natural resources management practices in wildlife conservation and management; d) Priority areas for wildlife conservation and projections on increasing designated wildlife conservation areas in form of national parks, national reserves, conservancies and sanctuaries; e) Innovative schemes and incentives to be applied in securing identified critical wildlife migratory routes, corridors and dispersal areas for sustainable wildlife conservation and management; f) Clear targets indicating projection in terms of specific percentage of landscape and seascape to be brought under protected areas, conservancies and sanctuaries over the next five years; g) National wildlife research and monitoring priorities and information systems. h) Measures necessary to ensure equitable sharing of benefits; i) Guidelines for granting and monitoring wildlife user rights. j) Criteria for listing and measures for protection and management of endangered and threatened species; k) Innovative measures for mitigating human wildlife conflict; l) Framework for capacity development and training for effective wildlife management; m) Measures for wildlife disease surveillance and control; n) Adaptation and mitigation measures to avert adverse impacts of climate change on wildlife resources and its habitats;

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o) Reflection on regional co-operation and common approaches for enhancing protection, conservation and management of shared wildlife resources. Section 6 of the Act establishes Kenya Wild Life Service with the following functions: a) Conserve and manage national parks, wildlife conservation areas, and sanctuaries under its jurisdiction; b) Provide security for wildlife and visitors in national parks, wildlife conservation areas and sanctuaries; c) Set up a county wildlife conservation committee in respect of each county; d) Promote or undertake commercial and other activities for the purpose of achieving sustainable wildlife conservation; e) Collect revenue and charges due to the national government from wildlife and, as appropriate, develop mechanisms for benefit sharing with communities living in wildlife areas; f) Develop mechanisms for benefit sharing with communities living in wildlife areas; g) Advise the Cabinet Department on matters pertaining to wildlife policy, strategy and legislation; h) Coordinate the preparation and implementation of ecosystem plans; i) Prepare and implement national park management plans; j) Assist and advise in the preparation of management plans for community and private wildlife conservancies and sanctuaries; k) Undertake and conduct enforcement activities such as anti-poaching operations, wildlife protection, intelligence gathering, investigations and other enforcement activities for the effective carrying out of the provisions of this Act; l) Conduct and co-ordinate, all research activities in the field of wildlife conservation and management and ensure application of research findings in conservation planning, implementation and decision making; m) Advise the National Land Commission, the Cabinet Secretary and the Council on the establishment of national parks, wildlife conservancies and sanctuaries; n) Promote and undertake extension service programmes intended to enhance wildlife conservation, education and training; o) Identify user rights and advise the Cabinet Secretary thereon;

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p) Grant permits; q) Establish forensic laboratories r) Monitor the compliance of terms and conditions of licenses; Section 25 of the Act establishes County Wildlife Conservation and Compensation Committee. Section 25 (1) states that ―Where any person suffers any bodily injury or is killed by any wildlife listed under the Third Schedule, the person injured, or in the case of a deceased person, the personal representative or successor or assign, may launch a claim to the County Wildlife Conservation and Compensation Committee within the jurisdiction established under this Act‖. Sub section(4) Any person who suffers loss or damage to crops, livestock or other property from wildlife specified in the Seventh Schedule hereof and subject to the rules made by the Cabinet Secretary, may submit a claim to the County Wildlife Conservation and Compensation Committee who shall verify the claim and make recommendations as appropriate and submit it to the Service for due consideration

3.5.12 The Climate Change Act No. 11 of 2016 This is an Act of Parliament to provide for a regulatory framework for enhanced response to climate change; to provide for mechanism and measures to achieve low carbon climate development, and for connected purposes. It was assented 6th May, 2016 and commenced on 27th May, 2016. The Act establishes the Climate Change Council; Climate Change Directorate; climate change unit within government departments (National and County) to administer and mainstream climate change adaptation and mitigation. Section 3 (1) states that the Act shall be applied for the development, management, implementation and regulation of mechanisms to enhance climate change resilience and low carbon development for the sustainable development of Kenya. The Act is applicable in all sectors of the economy by the national and county governments to: a) Mainstream climate change responses into development planning, decision making and implementation; b) Build resilience and enhance adaptive capacity to the impacts of climate change; c) Formulate programmes and plans to enhance the resilience and adaptive capacity of human and ecological systems to the impacts of climate change;

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d) Mainstream and reinforce climate change disaster risk reduction into strategies and actions of public and private entities; e) Mainstream intergenerational and gender equity in all aspects of climate change responses; f) Provide incentives and obligations for private sector contribution in achieving low carbon climate resilient development; g) Promote low carbon technologies, improve efficiency and reduce emissions intensity by facilitating approaches and uptake of technologies that support low carbon, and climate resilient development; h) Facilitate capacity development for public participation in climate change responses through awareness creation, consultation, representation and access to information; i) Mobilize and transparently manage public and other financial resources for climate change response; j) Provide mechanisms for, and facilitate climate change research and development, training and capacity building; k) Mainstream the principle of sustainable development into the planning for and decision making on climate change response; and l) Integrate climate change into the exercise of power and functions of all levels of governance, and to enhance cooperative climate change governance between the national government and county governments. Section 19 (1) requires county government to integrate and mainstream climate change actions, interventions and duties set out in this Act, and the National Climate Change Action Plan (NCCAP) into various sectors. In addition (ss2), the county government shall in development, updating and approval of the County Integrated Development Plan (CIDP), and the County Sectoral Plans mainstream the implementation of the National Climate Change Action Plan, taking into account national and county priorities. NEMA is empowered by section 20 of the Act to integrate climate risk and vulnerability assessment into all forms of assessment, and for that purpose liaise with relevant lead agencies for their technical advice.

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3.5.13 The Forest Conservation and Management Act No 34 of 2016 This is an Act of Parliament to give effect to Article 69 of the Constitution with regard to forest resources; to provide for the development and sustainable management, including conservation and rational utilization of all forest resources for the socio-economic development of the country and for connected purposes. The Act under section 4 has several six (6) principles: a) Good governance in accordance with Article 10 of the Constitution; b) Public participation and community involvement in the management of forests; c) Consultation and co-operation between the national and county governments; d) The values and principles of public service in accordance with Article 232 of the Constitution; e) Protection of indigenous knowledge and intellectual property rights of forests resources; f) International best practices in management and conservation of forests. Section 7 of the Act establishes Kenya Forest Service (KFS) with the following functions: a) Conserve, protect and manage all public forests in accordance with the provisions of this Act; b) Prepare and implement management plans for all public forests and, where requested, assist in preparation of management plans for community forests or private forests in consultation with the relevant owners; c) Receive and consider applications for licenses or permits in relation to forest resources or management of forests or any other relevant matter in accordance with this Act; d) Establish and implement benefit sharing arrangements in accordance with the provisions of this Act; e) Assist county governments to build capacity in forestry and forest management in the counties; f) In consultation with relevant stakeholders, develop programmes for tourism and for recreational and ceremonial use of public forests; g) Promote forestry education and training; h) Register and maintain a register of all forest management plans prepared for public forests;

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i) Collaborate with relevant persons in identifying research needs and applying research findings in relation to forests and forestry; j) Manage water catchment areas in relation to soil and water conservation, carbon sequestration and other environmental services in collaboration with relevant stakeholders; k) Prepare (i) a Forest Status Report for the Cabinet Secretary once in every two years; and (ii) a Resource Assessment Report for the Cabinet Secretary once in every five years; l) Consider and recommend to the Cabinet Secretary the establishment of public forests on un- alienated public land or any other public land; m) Consider and recommend to the Cabinet Secretary the determination and alteration of boundaries of public forests; n) Establish forest conservancy areas for purposes of conservation and management; o) Approve the provision of credit facilities and technical training for community-based forest industries, and the provision of incentives to persons for the sustainable utilization of wood and non-wood forest products; p) Implement and enforce rules and regulations governing importation, exportation and trade in forest produce; and q) Develop, maintain and regularly update a geographic information system database of all forests in Kenya. The service (KFS) is managed by the Board (s.9). The Board establishes conservation areas and committees for p roper and efficient management of forests [s.20 (1)]. The conservation areas are further divided into ecosystems. The forest conservation committee performs the following functions: (a) make recommendations to the Board and to the relevant county government in relation to the conservation and utilization of forests; (b) identify and recommend areas to be set aside for the creation of public forests; and (c) perform any other function that may be assigned to it by the Board.

Section 21 sub section 1 requires the County Government to: a) Implement national policies on forest management and conservation; b) Manage all forests on public land defined under Article 62(2) of the Constitution;

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c) Prepare an annual report, with the approval of the County Assembly, for the Service on the activities of the county government in relation to this Act and any national policies on forest management and conservation; d) Promote afforestation activities in the county; e) Advice and assist communities and individuals in the management of community forests or private forests; and f) May enter into joint management agreements with communities or individuals for the management of community forests or private forests. Part IV of the Act classifies the forest and specifies the Conservation and Management of Forests. The forests [s.30 (1)] are classified as public, community or private forests. Public forests given in subsection 2 of the Act include: (a) public forests classified under Article 62(1)(g) of the Constitution; and (b) forests on land between the high and low water marks classified under Article 62(1)(1) of the Constitution. On the other hand Community forests under sub section 3 include: a) Forests on land lawfully registered in the name of group representatives; b) Forests on land lawfully transferred to a specific community; c) Forests on any other land declared to be community land by an Act of Parliament; d) Forests on land that is lawfully held, managed or used by specific communities as community forests; e) Forests on ancestral lands and lands traditionally occupied by hunter-gatherer communities; and f) Forests lawfully held as trust land by the county governments, but not including any public land held in trust by the county governments under Article 62(2) of the Constitution. Finally private Forest under sub section (4) includes: a) Forests on registered land held by any person under any freehold tenure; b) Forests on land held by any person under leasehold tenure; c) Any forest owned privately by an individual, institution or body corporate for commercial or non-commercial purposes; and d) Forests on any other land declared private land under an Act of Parliament.

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All public forests in Kenya [s.31(1)] are vested in the Service, subject to any rights of user in respect thereof, which by or under this Act or other written law, have been or are granted to any other person. On the other hand all community forests [s.32(1)] are vested in the community, subject to any rights of user in respect thereof, which by or under this Act or other written law, have been or are granted to any other person. Section 34 (1) of the Act allows any person to petition the National Assembly or the Senate, for the variation of boundaries of a public forest or the revocation of the registration of a public forest or a portion of a public forest. Sub section 2 requires the petitioner to demonstrate that the variation of boundaries or revocation of the registration of a public forest or a portion of a public forest does not: (a) endanger any rare, threatened or endangered species; or (b) adversely affect its value as a water catchment area; and prejudice biodiversity conservation, cultural site protection of the forest or its use for educational, recreational, health or research purposes.

Sub section 3 indicates that the petition shall be considered in accordance with the provisions of the Petitions to Parliament (Procedure) Act and the Standing Orders of the relevant House.

Sub section 4 states that the Cabinet Secretary shall, within thirty days of the petition being committed to the relevant Committee, submit a recommendation on whether the petition should be approved subject to: (a) the petition being subjected to an independent Environmental Impact Assessment; and (b) public consultation being undertaken in accordance with the Second Schedule. Sub section 5 states that ―If the relevant Committee, reports that it finds that the petition‖: (a) does not disclose a ground for the variation of the boundaries of a public forest or the revocation of the registration of a public forest or a portion of a public forest, no further proceedings shall be taken; or (b) discloses a ground for the variation of the boundaries of a public forest or the revocation of the registration of a public forest or a portion of a public forest, the National Assembly or the Senate shall vote on whether to approve the recommendation. Subsection 6 states that ―If the resolution under subsection (5) (b) is supported by a majority of the members of the National Assembly or the Senate, present and voting, the Cabinet Secretary shall publish a notice in the Gazette‖.

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Section 35 (1) states that ―Upon the recommendation of the Service or the relevant county government, the Cabinet Secretary may, by notice in the Gazette, declare any community or private forest, which in the opinion of the Service is mismanaged or neglected, to be a provisional forest‖. The declaration of provisional forest shall only be made where: (a) The forest: i. is an important catchment area or a source of water springs; ii. is rich in biodiversity and contains rare, threatened or endangered species; iii. is of cultural or scientific significance; or iv. supports an important industry and is a source of livelihood for the surrounding forest communities; and b) The Director General has issued a notice requiring the forest owner, as the case may be, to undertake specific silvicultural practices to improve the forest, and such notice has not been complied with, or the forest owner is unable to undertake the specified practices.

Sub section 3 indicates that a provisional forest shall be managed by the Service in collaboration with the owner thereof for a period of three years subject to review, and any profits accruing therefrom shall be paid to such owner less the expenses incurred by the Service in managing the forest concerned. Sub section 4 states that ―A provisional forest shall revert to the owner where the Board is satisfied that it has been adequately rehabilitated and the owner has given an undertaking to efficiently manage it‖. Part V section 48 (1) of the Act allows for community participation in conservation and management of public by registering Community Forest Association (CFA) in accordance with the provisions of the Societies Act. In Mochongoi Settlement Scheme there is an existing Ol Arabel CFA. Section 49 (1) requires CFA to: a) Protect, conserve and manage the forest or part of the forest in accordance with an approved management agreement entered into with the Service and the provisions of the management plan for the forest;

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b) Formulate and implement sustainable forest programmes that shall be consistent with the traditional forest user rights of the relevant forest community; c) Protect sacred groves and protected trees; d) Assist the Service or any other relevant authority in enforcing the provisions of this Act including in relation to illegal harvesting of forest products; e) With the approval of the Service enter into partnerships with other persons for the purposes of ensuring the efficient and sustainable conservation and management of the forest; f) Inform the Service of any developments, changes and occurrences within the forest which are critical for the conservation of biodiversity; g) Help in firefighting; and h) Do any other act that is necessary for the efficient conservation and management of the forest. Sub section 2 indicates that the management agreement between the Service and the community forest association shall confer on the association all or any of the following forest user rights: (a) collection of medicinal herbs; (b) harvesting of honey; (c) harvesting of timber or fuel wood; (d) grass harvesting and grazing; (e) collection of forest produce for community based industries; (f) ecotourism and recreational activities; (g) scientific and education activities; (h) plantation establishment through non-resident cultivation; (i) contracts to assist in carrying out specified forestry operations; (j) development of community wood and non-wood forest based industries; and (k) other benefits which may from time to time be agreed upon between an association and the Service.

3.5.14 Forests (Participation in Sustainable Forest Management) Rules, 2009 The rules are subsidiary legislation to operationalize the Forest Conservation and Management Act number 34 of 2016. These Rules provide for sustainable forest harvest and community management of forest resources and provide with respect to granting of a permit, timber-licence, special-use licence, contract, joint management agreement, concession, community forest management agreement and cultivation-permit and the exercise of rights related to such authorizations. The Rules require the Kenya Forest Service to adopt a management plan covering a period of at least five years in respect of every state forest.

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Part III of the rules talks about community participation in Forest Management. Rule 41 states that ―the service may, whenever circ*mstances make it necessary or appropriate to do so, invite forest associations to participate in the sustainable management of state forests‖. The types of agreements for community participation under rule 42 include (a) a community forest management agreement issued to a forest association to undertake community forestry activities; and (b) a cultivation-permit issued to members of a forest association to undertake non-resident cultivation. Rule 43 (1) states that ―The Service may enter into a community forest management agreement with a forest association wishing to conserve and utilize a forest for purposes of livelihood, cultural or religious practices‖. Rule 50 (1) allows the Service to enter into a written agreement with a forest association to allow its members to engage in non-resident cultivation in adjacent forest areas. Sub rule 2 states that ―The Service shall only allow non-resident cultivation in areas intended for the establishment of industrial plantations‖. Rule 51 talks about zoning of forest areas. Sub rule 1 states that ―the Service shall for the purposes of Rule 50: (a) identify and zone off the forest areas available for such cultivation; (b) demarcate individual plots, which shall be of a minimum size of one quarter hectare and of a maximum size set by the Service based on local conditions; and (c) prepare a sketch map of all the plots, and display it prominently at the forest station responsible for the forest area‖. Sub rule 2 allows the Service to open up new areas for cultivation in accordance with the approved planting programmes.

3.5.15. Fire Risk Reduction Rules, Legal Notice No. 59, 2007 Fire outbreak is common in work places and not only destroys property but also loss of life. To reduce such cases, the Kenya government through the Minister for Labour and Human Resource Development on 4th May 2007 gazetted the Fire Risk Reduction Rules which among other things require that every owner or occupier of a work place shall: a) Cause a fire safety audit at the work place to be carried out at least once in every period of 12 months by an approved fire safety auditor, b) Establish a fire fighting team at the work place

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c) Ensure that every member of the fire fighting team undertakes a basic fire safety training course within three months from the date of appointment into the fire fighting team d) Ensure that a fire drill is conducted at least once in every period of 12 months and a record of such a drill kept available for inspection e) Establish and implement a written fire safety policy outlining the organization and arrangements for carrying out the policy f) Ensure that any door of any store where flammable substances are stored is constructed in a manner that the door shall be self closing, opening outwards or sliding and capable of containing smoke from within the work room, in event of a fire g) Identify a location in the work place where every worker shall assemble in the event of a fire h) Provide suitable means of alerting persons in the work place, in the event of a fire, and such means shall be made known to all workers The people of Mochongoi Settlement Scheme shall ensure that fire reduction rules are adhered to at all times by avoiding land clearing by burning that reduces vegetation cover significantly and sometimes may go out hand and consumes crops, forest, property, wildlife and human life

3.5.16 Environmental Management and Coordination (Amendment) Act, 2015 Existing environmental legislation in Kenya was formulated in response to specific problems, thus they were reactive. The thrust of the legislation was almost entirely negative; stressing what should not be done. It had little relationship to environmental management, a concept emphasizing planning and incentives for environmentally sound choices. The lack of coordination in dealing with environmental protection necessitated the need for a comprehensive Act to deal with all environmental matters. This Act referred to as Environmental Management and Coordination Act (EMCA), 1999 came into force in the year 2000, and was aimed at bringing into one legislation the 77 other statutes, which related to environmental issues yet scattered among the various government ministries. EMCA was amended in 2015 The Act gives every person in Kenya a right to a clean and healthy environment. It also confers upon every person the duty to protect and safeguard the environment. Part V of the Act provides measures for protection and conservation of the environment. Pollution of the

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environment through waste disposal, noise, dust, radiation, pesticides, smells is prohibited. The Authority (National Environment Management Authority) may issue and serve on any person in respect of any matter relating to the management of the environment a restoration order to require the person on whom it is served to restore the environment as near as it may be to the state in which it was before the implementation of a project or action. Thus the polluter pays principle shall apply. The Act also provides for heavy penalties on any person who commits an environmental offence under Part XIII. Section 148 provides that the Act shall prevail over any written law in force immediately before the coming into force of this Act, relating to the management of the environment. The Client (Baringo County) has conducted IESIA and is seeking approval from NEMA.

3.5.16.1 Environmental Management and Co-ordination (Conservation of Biological Diversity and Resources, Access to Genetic Resources and Benefit Sharing) Regulations No. 47 of 2006. This is a subsidiary legislation enacted to operationalize Environment management and Co- ordination (Amendment), Act 2015. Regulation 4 (1) prohibits any person from engaging in any activity that may: a) Have an adverse impact on any ecosystem; b) Lead to the introduction of any exotic species; c) Lead to unsustainable use of natural resources, without an Environmental Impact Assessment Licence issued by the Authority under the Act. Regulation 5 provides for conservation of threatened species. Sub regulation 1 states that the Authority (NEMA) shall, in consultation with the relevant lead agencies, impose bans, restrictions or similar measures on the access and use of any threatened species in order to ensure its regeneration and maximum sustainable yield.

Regulation 8 provides for protection of environmentally significant areas including area of land, sea, lake or river which has Gazetted and declared to be a protected natural environment system for purposes of promoting and preserving biological diversity in accordance with section 54 of the Act (EMCA).

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Part III of the regulation gives provisions for access to genetic resources. Regulation 9 (1) states that ―Any person who intends to access genetic resources in Kenya shall apply to the Authority for an access permit in the form set out in the First Schedule, and such application shall be accompanied by the fees prescribed in the Second Schedule to these Regulations‖. Part IV of the regulation gives provision for benefit sharing. Regulation 20 (1) requires the holder of an access permit to facilitate an active involvement of Kenyan citizens and institutions in the execution of the activities under the permit. Sub regulation 2 requires the holder of an access permit to include enjoyment of both monetary and non-monetary benefits arising from the right of access granted and the use of genetic resources.

3.5.16.2 Waste Management Regulations, 2006 (Legal Notice No.121) Waste Management Regulations are meant to streamline the handling, transportation and disposal of various types of waste. The aim of the Waste Management Regulations is to protect human health and the environment. Currently, different types of waste are dumped haphazardly posing serious environmental and health concerns. The regulations place emphasis on waste minimization, cleaner production and segregation of waste at source. The regulations have classified various types of waste and recommended appropriate disposal methods for each waste type. Under the Waste Management Regulations, NEMA licenses transporters, incinerators, landfills, composers, recyclers and transfer stations. Facilities to be licensed include local authorities, transporters and handlers of various types of waste. The licensing employs a risk- based approach by concentrating on facilities considered to pose a high risk to the environment.

3.5.16.3 The Environmental Management and Co-ordination (Wetlands, River Banks, Lake Shores and Sea Shore Management) Regulations, 2009 The subsidiary legislation (Special issue 51; Kenya Gazette Supplement Legislative Supplement No. 6; No. 9 Legal Notice No. 19 of 13th February 2009) is in compliance with section 42(3) and 147 of the Environmental Management and Co-ordination (Amendment) Act 2015. Section 5 (1) gives the principles that shall be observed in the management of all wetlands in Kenya: (a) Wetland resources shall be utilized in a sustainable manner compatible with the continued presence of wetlands and their hydrological, ecological, social and economic functions and services;

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(b) Environmental Impact Assessment and Environmental Audits as required under the Act and shall be mandatory for all activities likely to have an adverse impact on the wetland; Special measures shall be essential to promote respect for, preserve and maintain knowledge innovations and practices of indigenous and local communities embodying traditional lifestyles relevant for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity and promote their wider application with the approval and involvement of the holders of such knowledge, innovations and practices and encourage the equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the utilization of such knowledge, innovations and practices; (c) Sustainable use of wetlands shall be integrated into the national and local land use plans to ensure sustainable use and management of the resources; (e) The principle of public participation in the management of wetlands; (f) The principle of international co-operation in the management of environmental resources shared by two or more states; (g) The polluter-pays principle; (h) The pre-cautionary principle; (i) Public and private good. Section 21 (1) states that ―A developer intending to a undertake a project which may have a significant impact on a wetland, river bank, lake shore or the sea shore shall carry out an Environmental Impact Assessment in accordance with the provisions of the EMCA (Amendment), 2015. Section 27 states that ―Any person who contravenes the provisions of these Regulations commits an offence and shall be liable on conviction to imprisonment for such term and such fine as are provided for in the Act‖. Mochongoi settlement scheme need to preserve/conserve/protect wet lands.

3.5.16.4 Water Quality Regulations, 2006, Legal Notice No. 120 Environmental Management and Co-ordination (Water Quality) Regulations, 2006 is a subsidiary legislation for prevention of water pollution. The water quality regulations, legislative supplement number 36 was published in the Kenya Gazette on 29TH September 2006. These Regulations apply to drinking water, water used for industrial, agricultural, recreational, fisheries and wildlife purposes, and water used for any other purposes. Part II spells out ways to protect the water from pollutants such effluent from sewage treatment works, industry or other point sources into the aquatic environment without a valid effluent discharge license issued in accordance with the provisions of the Act.

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Regulation 4 sub regulation 1 prohibits any act which directly or indirectly causes, or may cause immediate or subsequent water pollution, and it shall be immaterial whether or not the water resource was polluted before the enactment of these Regulations. Sub regulation 2 states that ―No person shall throw or cause to flow into or near a water resource any liquid, solid or gaseous substance or deposit any such substance in or near it, as to cause pollution. In order to protect lakes, rivers, streams, springs, wells and other water sources from pollution, regulation 6 prohibits discharge of any effluent from sewage treatment works, industry or other point sources without a valid effluent discharge licence issued in accordance with the provisions of the Act. Regulation 11 provides for protection of aquatic environment. It states that ―No person shall discharge or apply any poison, toxic, noxious or obstructing matter, radioactive waste or other pollutants or permit any person to dump or discharge such matter into the aquatic environment unless it complies with the standards‖. Every person who generates and discharges effluent into the environment under a license issued under the Act shall carry out daily effluent discharge quality and quantity monitoring and shall submit quarterly records of such monitoring to NEMA or its designated representative (r14(1)). Any person who contravenes any of these Regulations commits an offence and shall be liable to a fine not exceeding five hundred thousand shillings (r27(1)). The quality standard for water for domestic use is given in the first schedule below in line with regulation 5. On the other hand, the thresholds for discharge of treated effluent into the environment are given in the sixth schedule below in compliance with regulation 14. It provides for water quality standards for various uses, water quality monitoring indicators, standards for effluent both treated and untreated; monitoring indicators for effluents; and chargeable fees for discharge of effluent. The solid and liquid wastes need to be prevented from polluting water courses.

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Table 20: Quality Standards for Sources of Domestic Water

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Table 21: Monitoring for Discharge of Treated Effluent into the Environment SIX SCHEDULE (r.14)

MONITORING FOR DISCHARGE OF TREATED EFFLUENT INTO THE ENVIRONMENT

There is for people in Mochongoi Settlement Scheme to construct sanitary facilities at every homestead preferably VIP Latrine to reduce open defecation (OD) and subsequent water pollution.

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3.5.16.5 Environmental Management and Co-ordination (Conservation of Biological Diversity and Resources, Access to Genetic Resources and Benefit Sharing) Regulations No. 47 of 2006. This is a subsidiary legislation enacted to operationalize Environment management and Co- ordination (Amendment), Act 2015. Regulation 4 (1) prohibits any person from engaging in any activity that may: a) Have an adverse impact on any ecosystem; b) Lead to the introduction of any exotic species; c) Lead to unsustainable use of natural resources, without an Environmental Impact Assessment Licence issued by the Authority under the Act. Regulation 5 provides for conservation of threatened species. Sub regulation 1 states that the Authority (NEMA) shall, in consultation with the relevant lead agencies, impose bans, restrictions or similar measures on the access and use of any threatened species in order to ensure its regeneration and maximum sustainable yield.

Regulation 8 provides for protection of environmentally significant areas including area of land, sea, lake or river which has Gazetted and declared to be a protected natural environment system for purposes of promoting and preserving biological diversity in accordance with section 54 of the Act (EMCA). Part III of the regulation gives provisions for access to genetic resources. Regulation 9 (1) states that ―Any person who intends to access genetic resources in Kenya shall apply to the Authority for an access permit in the form set out in the First Schedule, and such application shall be accompanied by the fees prescribed in the Second Schedule to these Regulations‖. Part IV of the regulation gives provision for benefit sharing. Regulation 20 (1) requires the holder of an access permit to facilitate an active involvement of Kenyan citizens and institutions in the execution of the activities under the permit. Sub regulation 2 requires the holder of an access permit to include enjoyment of both monetary and non-monetary benefits arising from the right of access granted and the use of genetic resources.

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3.5.16.6 The Environmental Management and Coordination (Strategic Assessment, Integrated Impact Assessment and Audit) Regulations, 2018 Regulation 4 (1) states that ―No proponent shall implement a project (a) likely to have a negative environmental impact; or (b) for which an environmental impact assessment is required under the Act or these Regulations; unless an Integrated Environmental Impact Assessment has been concluded and an Environmental Impact Assessment Licence granted in accordance with these Regulations. In addition (Sub regulation 2), No licensing authority under any law in force in Kenya shall issue a licence for any project for which an environmental impact assessment is required under the Act unless the applicant produces to the licensing authority a licence of environmental impact assessment issued by the Authority under these Regulations. Sub regulation 3 states that ―If the Authority determines that an application for an environmental impact assessment licence raises issues that concern more than one (1) County, it shall submit the application to the relevant County Directors of Environment‖. Part IV of the regulations talks about Integrated Environmental Impact Assessment Study. Under Regulation 14 (1), it mandatory to conduct Integrated Environmental Impact Assessment Study for all high risk projects tabulated in the Second Schedule of the Act. Sub regulation 2 requires the proponent to undertake a scoping study and develop terms of reference for approval by the Authority prior to commencement of the Integrated Environmental Impact Assessment Study. Sub regulation 3 states ―In carrying out the scoping study, the Proponent shall: a) Review relevant documents such as laws, regulations, guidelines, standards, policies, plans or programs; b) Consult and inform the affected public about the proposed project; c) Consult and gather the views and concerns of key stakeholders about the proposed project; Sub regulation 4 states that ―A scoping report shall take into consideration the environmental, social, cultural and economic aspects of the proposed project and shall: a) Describe the proposed project and its objectives; b) Provide a brief description of the environmental characteristics of the project area; c) Identify the range of issues to be addressed in the Integrated Environmental Impact Assessment study and the issues raised by the stakeholders;

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d) Provide a brief of the relevant policy, legislative and regulatory framework; e) Determine the relevance of integration of climate change vulnerability assessment, adaptation and mitigation actions; f) Identify anticipated significant impacts and issues that would need detailed study and reasons thereof; g) Identify study issues that are not significant or very well understood and justifications thereof; h) Describe the scope of the Integrated Environmental Impact Assessment study in terms of geographical extent; i) Outline how the Integrated Environmental Impact Assessment study will be conducted, the disciplines and expertise to be involved together with the evidence of qualifications, and the implementation schedule of the study; j) Provide the profile and evidence of experience in similar assignments for the lead expert or the firm of experts; k) List the main stakeholders who should be consulted during the Integrated Environmental Impact Assessment study and develop a strategic communication plan to ensure inclusive participation; l) Determine the requirements for the collection of baseline and other relevant information; and m) Provide the Terms of Reference for the Integrated Environmental Impact Assessment study. Regulation 17 (1) states that ―A proponent shall, upon approval of the scoping report and the Terms of Reference, constitute a competent team of registered environmental assessment experts authorized so to do in accordance with section 58 (5) of the Act and these Regulations to undertake the Integrated Environmental Impact Assessment study‖. Sub regulation 2 requires every Integrated Environmental Impact Assessment study to be carried out by a lead expert registered in accordance with the criteria specified in the Second Schedule to these Regulations. Sub regulation 3 requires the persons undertaking an Integrated Environmental Impact Assessment study to conduct themselves in accordance with the code of practice as contained in the Third Schedule to these Regulations or prescribed by the Authority from time to time.

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Regulation 18 states that ―An Integrated Environmental Impact Assessment study report prepared under these Regulations shall take into account inter alia environmental, social, cultural, economic, legal, safety and health considerations, and shall: a) Provide the socio-economic and environmental baseline characteristics of the area likely to be affected by the project; b) Identify and predict the anticipated environmental impacts of the project and the scale of the impacts; c) Identify and analyze at least three (3) alternatives to the proposed project, which are the proposed project, the no-project option and one other project alternative; d) Propose mitigation measures to be taken during and after the implementation of the project; and e) Develop an environmental management plan with mechanisms for monitoring and evaluating the compliance and environmental performance. Regulation 19 (1) states that ―During the process of conducting the Integrated Environmental Impact Assessment study, the proponent shall, seek the views of persons who may be affected by the project by: a) Holding at least one (1) public meeting or such number as determined in the approved terms of reference under regulation 15, with the affected parties and communities in a venue convenient and accessible, to explain the project and its effects and to receive their oral or written comments; b) Ensuring that appropriate notices indicating the dates, times and venues of the meetings, are publicized to the affected communities and the other concerned parties at least fourteen (14) days prior to the meetings referred to in 19(1)(a); c) Ensuring that the reports of the public meetings are annexed to Integrated Environmental Impact Assessment study report. d) Posting posters in strategic public places and in the vicinity of the site of the proposed project informing the affected parties and communities of the proposed project. Regulation 20 (1) states that ― A proponent shall submit to the Authority, an Integrated Environmental Impact Assessment study report detailing but not limited to the following information: a) The nature of the project;

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b) Methodology of undertaking the study including implementation of stakeholder engagement plan; c) The proposed location of the project including the coordinates; d) A concise description of the national environmental legislative and regulatory framework; e) Baseline information including environmental and socio- economic and any other relevant information related to the project; f) The objectives of the project; g) The technology, procedures and processes to be used in the implementation of the project; h) The materials to be used in the construction and implementation of the project; i) The products, by-products and waste generated by the project; j) A description of the environment likely to be affected by the project; k) Summary of issues discussed at the public participation forum with supporting documents annexed; l) The environmental impacts analysis of the project including direct, indirect, cumulative, irreversible, short-term and long-term impacts anticipated, social analysis, economic analysis and cultural analysis; m) Integration of climate change vulnerability assessment, adaptation and mitigation actions; n) Analysis of alternatives including project site, design, technologies and processes and reasons for preferring the proposed site, design, technologies and processes; o) An environmental management plan proposing the measures for eliminating, minimizing or mitigating adverse impacts on the environment; including the cost, time frame and responsibility to implement the measures; p) Provision of an action plan for the prevention of foreseeable accidents, occupational diseases and management of hazardous activities in the course of carrying out activities of the project; q) The measures to prevent health hazards and to ensure safety in the working environment for the employees and for the management of emergencies related to the project;

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r) An identification of knowledge gaps and uncertainties which were encountered in undertaking the Integrated Environmental Impact Assessment study; s) An indication of whether the project is likely to affect the environment in any other country, the available alternatives and mitigation measures; and t) Such other matters as the Authority may require. Sub regulation 2 states that ―The Integrated Environmental Impact Assessment study report shall be accompanied by a non-technical summary outlining an overview of the project, the key findings, conclusions and recommendations of the study and shall be signed by the proponent and the lead expert involved in its preparation‖. Regulation 21 requires the proponent to submit at least ten (10) printed copies and an electronic copy of an Integrated Environmental Impact Assessment study report to the Authority accompanied by a duly completed Form 9 set out in the First Schedule to these Regulations. Regulation 22 (1) states that ―The Authority shall within fourteen (14) days of the receipt of the Integrated Environmental Impact Assessment study report, dispatch a copy of the report to any relevant lead agencies for their comments‖. Upon receiving the Integrated Environmental Impact Assessment study report (s.r.2), the lead agencies shall review the report to ensure that it complies with the Terms of Reference developed under regulation 15 and that it is comprehensive and shall thereafter send their comments on the study report to the Authority within thirty (30) days or such extended period as the Authority may specify. Sub regulation 3 states that ―If the lead agencies to which a copy of the Integrated Environmental Impact Assessment study report is submitted fail to submit their comments within thirty (30) days or such extended period as the Authority may specify, the Authority may proceed with the determination of the application for the implementation of the project‖. Regulation 23 (1) states that ―The Authority shall, within fourteen (14) days of receiving the Integrated Environmental Impact Assessment study report, invite the public to make written comments on the report. Sub regulation 2 states that ―The Authority shall, at the expense of the proponent: a) Publish a notice on the proposed project in the Gazette and in at least two newspapers circulating in the area or the proposed area of the project, inviting the public to submit written comments on the Integrated Environmental Impact Assessment study report; and

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b) Make an announcement of the notice in both official and local languages in a radio widely broadcasting in the area or the proposed area of the project for at least once a week for two consecutive weeks. Sub regulation 3 states that ―The notice to the public to submit comments under this regulation shall state: a) The nature of the project; b) The location of the project; c) The anticipated impacts of the project and the proposed mitigation measures; d) The times and place where the full report can be inspected; and e) The period within which the Authority shall receive comments. Sub regulation 4 states that ―The notice under sub-regulation (3) shall be in the format prescribed in Form 11 set out in the First Schedule to these Regulations‖. Regulation 24 (1) states that ― Upon receipt of written comments as specified by section 59 and section 60 of the Act the Authority may hold a public hearing‖. The public hearing under these Regulations (s.r.2) shall be presided over by a suitably qualified person appointed by the Authority. The date, time and venue of the public hearing (s.r.3) shall be publicized at least seven (7) days prior to the meeting: (a) by notice in at least one daily newspaper of national circulation; (b) by at least two announcements, one of which shall be in the official language and the other in a local language, which shall run in a radio station with wide coverage in the project area; and (c) by posting posters of the notice in strategic public places in the vicinity of the site of the proposed project. . The public hearing shall be conducted at a venue convenient and accessible to people who are likely to be affected by the project (s.r.4). . The proponent shall be given an opportunity to make a presentation and to respond to issues raised at the public hearing (s.r.5). . The presiding official shall in consultation with the Authority determine the rules of procedure at the public hearing (s.r.6). . On the conclusion of the hearing, the presiding official shall compile a report of the views presented at the public hearing and submit the report to the Director General within seven (7) days from the date of the public hearing (s.r.7).

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Regulation 25 (1) states that ―The Authority shall give its Record of Decision on an Integrated Environmental Impact Assessment study report within three (3) months of receiving the study report. . The Record of Decision of the Authority shall be in writing and shall contain the reasons thereof (s.r.2). . In making a decision regarding an Integrated Environmental Impact Assessment under these Regulations, the Authority shall take into account (s.r.3): a) The integrated environmental impact assessment study report submitted under regulation 21 with emphasis on the environmental, economic, social and cultural impacts of the project; b) The comments submitted by lead agencies, indigenous communities, the public, and other interested stakeholders under these Regulations; c) Recommendations of a Technical Advisory Committee, where applicable; d) The report of a presiding official compiled after a public hearing specified under regulation 24 together with minutes of the public hearing, where applicable; and e) Other factors which the Authority may consider relevant in the implementation of the project. The Record of Decision shall be availed to the proponent by the Authority within fourteen (14) days from the date of the decision and a copy thereof shall be made available for inspection at the Authority's offices immediately thereafter (s.r.4). Regulation 26 states that ―Where the Authority approves an Integrated Environmental Impact Assessment study report under regulation 25, it shall issue an Environmental Impact Assessment licence in Form 10 set out in the First Schedule to these Regulations on such terms and conditions as it may deem necessary‖. Regulation 27 (1) requires the proponent during the construction (implementation) phase of the project undertake continuous monitoring using indicators and parameters developed in the Environmental Management Plan and submit a biannual monitoring report to the Authority for review. The content of the monitoring report shall be in accordance with the provisions of Regulation 40 (s.r.2).

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Regulation 31 (1) empowers the Authority may, at any time after it issues an Environmental Impact Assessment licence under these Regulations: a) Suspend the licence on such terms and conditions as the Authority may deem fit for a period not exceeding twenty four (24) months; or b) Revoke or cancel the licence. Sub regulation empowers the Authority may suspend, revoke or cancel a licence as specified under sub-regulation (1) where: a) The licensee contravenes the conditions set out in the licence; b) There is a substantial change or modification in the project or in the manner in which the project is being implemented; c) The project poses an environmental threat which could not be reasonably foreseen before the licence was issued; or d) It is established that the information or data given by the proponent in support of his application for an Environmental Impact Assessment licence was false, incorrect or intended to mislead. Regulation 34 states that ―In executing a project after the Integrated Environmental Impact Assessment study report has been approved by the Authority, the proponent shall take all practical measures to ensure the implementation of the Environmental Management Plan by‖: i. Carrying out a self-auditing study; ii. Monitoring compliance to and performance against the implementation of the Environmental Management Plan; iii. Collecting and analyzing the environmental and social data for the purpose of determining the effectiveness of mitigation measures of adverse environmental impacts identified in the Environmental Management Plan; iv. Submitting the self-audit reports to the Authority.

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3.6. Institutional and Administrative Framework The lack of coordination in dealing with environmental protection necessitated the need for a Environmental Management and Coordination Act (EMCA), 1999 (later amended in 2015) that came into force in the year 2000, and was aimed at bringing into one legislation the 77 other statutes, which related to environmental issues yet scattered among the various government ministries. However several lead agencies have been responsible for environmental protection and natural resource management in Kenya. This fragmented responsibility led to conflicting ministerial objectives and created gaps in coverage and became one of the main constraints to effective environmental management. The government realized about this problem and in 2002 created the National Environment Management Authority as the supreme regulatory and advisory body on environmental management in Kenya. NEMA is established under Section 7 of EMCA. NEMA is the principal Government institution charged with the overall supervision and co-ordination over all matters relating to the environment as well as implementation of all policies relating to the environment. NEMA is responsible for dealing with EIA. NEMA has to date considerably developed its human and other resource capacity to enable it coordinate the environmental management activities of Lead Agencies. NEMA is required to coordinate and supervise the various environmental management activities being undertaken by statutory organs with a view to promoting their integration into development policies, programmes, plans and projects that provide sustainable development and a safe and healthy environment to all Kenyans. Under section 29 (1) of EMCA, the Minister shall by notice in the gazette appoint County Environment Committees (CECs) of NEMA in respect of every County. These committees assist NEMA in effectively carrying out its function of proper management of the environment at these levels. It is instructive to note that the membership of these committees include inter alia representatives of farmers or pastoralists, business community, women and youth. Other institutions established by EMCA includes National Environmental Council (NEC), National Environment Complaints Committee (NECC), Standards and Enforcement Review Committee (SERC), National Environmental Tribunal (NET) and National Environment Action Plan Committee (NEAP). NEC is established under Section 4 of EMCA. NEC which is chaired by the Minister in charge of the environment and is the highest policy making body under EMCA. NEC is responsible for policy formulation and directions for purposes of EMCA. NEC

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sets national goals and objectives and promotes cooperation among both public and private organizations engaged in environmental protection programmes. NECC is established under Section 31 of EMCA. The NECC is concerned with the investigation of complaints relating to environmental damage and degradation generally. The NECC has powers to investigate complaints against any person or even against NEMA or on its own motion investigate any suspected case of environmental degradation. The NECC is required by law to submit reports of its findings and recommendations to NEC. The Standards and Enforcement Review Committee (SERC) is a committee of NEMA and is established under Section 70 of EMCA. This is a technical Committee responsible for formulation of environmental standards, methods of analysis, inspection, monitoring and technical advice on necessary mitigation measures. The Permanent Secretary under the Minister is the Chairman of the Standard and Enforcement Review Committee. The members of the SERC are set out in the third schedule to EMCA. They consist of representatives of various relevant government ministries and parastatals that are Lead Agencies as well as those responsible for matters such as economic planning and national development, finance, labour, public works, law and law enforcement, etc. Other members are drawn from public universities, and other government institutions. To operationalize the Act, NEMA through this committee has issued the following Regulations which have a bearing on the proposed project in regard to compliance with national requirement: i. Environmental Management and Co-ordination (Conservation of Biological Diversity and Resources, Access to Genetic Resources and Benefit Sharing) Regulations No. 47 of 2006 ii. The Environmental Management and Coordination (Waste Management) Regulations, 2006. Legal Notice No. 121 iii. The Environmental Management and Co-ordination (Wetlands, River Banks, Lake Shores and Sea Shore Management) Regulations, 2009 iv. The Environmental Management and Coordination (Water Quality) Regulations, 2006, Legal Notice No. 120 v. The Noise and Excessive Vibration Pollution (Control) Regulations, 2009, Legal Notice No. 61

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vi. Environmental Management and Co-ordination (Conservation of Biological Diversity and Resources, Access to Genetic Resources and Benefit Sharing) Regulations No. 47 of 2006. vii. Environmental Management and Coordination (Strategic Assessment, Integrated Impact Assessment and Audit) Regulations, 2018 The NET is established under Section 125 of EMCA for the purpose of hearing appeals from administrative decisions by organs responsible for enforcement of environmental standards. An appeal may be lodged by a project proponent upon denial of an ESIA license or by a local community upon the grant of an ESIA license to a project proponent. NEMA may also refer any matter that involves a point of law or is of unusual importance or complexity to NET for direction. The proceedings of NET are not as stringent as those in a court of law and NET shall not be bound by the rules of evidence as set out in the Evidence Act. Upon the making of an award, NET‘s mandate ends there as it does not have the power to enforce its awards. EMCA provides that any person aggrieved by a decision or award of NET may within 30 days appeal to the High Court. The National Environment Action Plan Committee (NEAP) is established under Section 37 of EMCA. This cross-sectoral committee is responsible inter alia, for the development of a five year national environment action plan. The national environment action plan shall contain among other aspects analysis of the natural resources of Kenya and their distribution, quantity and various uses. It also recommends legal and fiscal incentives for business that incorporate environmental requirements into their planning and operational processes as well set out guidelines for the planning and management of the environment and natural resources. NEAP shall upon adoption by Parliament be binding on all organs of government. Provincial and district environmental committees are also required to develop their own five year environmental action plans which are incorporated in the national environment action plan.

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CHAPTER FOUR: METHODOLOGY AND PUBLIC PARTICIPATION 4.1 Introduction Public participation is enshrined in the Kenya laws including Constitution 2010, Environment Management and Coordination (Amendment) Act 2015; Strategic Assessment, Integrated Impact Assessment and Audit Regulations, 2018; Forest Management and Conservation Act 2016 among others. EMA (Amendment) 2015 require public consultations and participation during the IESIA process for their input/contribution/ opinion/concerns/recommendations. The second schedule of the Forest Management and Conservation Act 2016, provide guidelines on how public consultation should be conducted.

4.2 Preparation and Approval of TOR for IESIA The Terms of Reference (TOR) for integrated Environment and Social Impact Assessment (IESIA) were prepared by technical team from the County. The TOR was submitted to NEMA Head Quarters on 11th October 2020 and was approved on 16th October 2020 (Approval reference number NEMA/EIA/TOR/07).

4.3 Launching of IESIA The launching of integrated Environment and Social Impact Assessment was done on 22ND November 2019 in Kabel trading centre in Mochongoi by the Governor of Baringo His Excellency Stanely Kiptis. Other leaders in attendance included Area MP, Baringo South Constituency, Hon. Charles Kamuren; Area MCA, Mochongoi Ward Kipruto Kimosop; Several other MCAs accompanying the area MCA; CECs and COs; SCA; ACC; Chiefs; Assistant Chiefs; Wazee Wa Mitaa; Community at Large and Other Stakeholders.

4.4 Planning and Mobilization for IESIA The planning meeting was done on 12th December 2019 in Kimoriot Trading Centre during Jamhuri Day. The members of the public had been given two weeks‘ notice through postas distributed in the entire Mochongoi by chiefs, assistant chiefs and wazee wa Mitaa. The public were informed of the commencement of the field work and public participation. During the public baraza on 12th December 2019, the public were informed about the process of Integrated Environment and Social impact assessment (IESIA). The leaders present during the public

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baraza included: Area MP, Baringo South Constituency, Hon. Charles Kamuren; Area MCA, Mochongoi Ward Kipruto Kimosop; SCA; ACC; Chiefs; Assistant Chiefs; Wazee Wa Mitaa; Community at Large and Other Stakeholders. The IESIA team also held planning meeting with Area MCA; ACC; Chiefs; Assistant Chiefs to plan the field work including development on activity schedule for the commencement of the work. It was agreed that the work commence on 13th December 2019 as communicated earlier in the notice. The ACC tasked the Chiefs and Assistant Chiefs to engaged wazee wa mtaa and actively participate during the IESIA process with the Consultant.

4.5 Stakeholder Consultations The main objectives of the public consultation process were to: . Inform all the stakeholders‘ details of the proposed degazettement of Ol Arabel Forest for Mochongoi Settlement Scheme; . Collect the view and concerns of the stakeholders on the proposed degazettement; . Collect views on the positive and negative impacts anticipated by the stakeholders and how these can be overcome; and . Build stakeholder consensus and acceptance on the way forward on the proposed degazettement.

4.6 Community/Stakeholders Consultative Process The consultative process involved: . Identification of stakeholders through consultation with proponent (County Government of Baringo), Area MP (Baringo South Constituency) and Area MCA (Mochongoi Ward). . Leaders‘ consultative meetings. . Key informant interviews. . Social economic survey. . Open public consultation meeting. . Administration of Questionnaires.

4.6.1 Identification of stakeholders . County government of Baringo (Office of the Governor)

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. County Ministry of Land, Housing and Urban Development (MoLHUD) . County Ministry of Environment, Natural Resources, Tourism and Wildlife Management (MoENTW) . County Ministry of Agriculture , Livestock Development and Fisheries (CMoALF) . County Department of Public Health (PH) . Water Resources Authority (WRA)-Kabarnet Office . Kenya Forest Services (KFS)-Ol Arabel Forest Station . Community Forest Association-Ol Arabel . Endorois Welfare Council (EWC) . Kenya Wildlife Services (KWS)-County Conservator and . Member Parliament (MP)-Baringo South . Sub County Administrator (SCA)-Baringo Couth . Member of County Assembly (MCA)-Mochongoi Ward . Ward Administrator (s) (WA)-Mochongoi Ward . Assistant County Commissioner, Mochongoi Ward . Chiefs (Kimoriot and Mochongoi Locations) . Assistant Chiefs (Kimoriot, Kamailel, Mochongoi, Kapnarok and Kapkechir Sub Locations) . Wazee Wa Mitaa (Nyumba Kumi)-16 Villages . Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) . Community Based Organizations (CBOs) . Self Help Groups (SHGs) . Faith Based Organizations (FBOs)

4.6.2 Leaders consultative meetings Consultation with community opinion leaders formed the entry point to public engagement. The purpose of this level of consultation was to solicit leaders good will and support. During the leaders consultation meetings key issues discussed included: . Identification of stakeholders . Defining the community involved and . Issues to be captured in social economic survey

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. Key concerns of leaders on issues concerning the degazettement of Ol Arabel Forest for Mochongoi Settlement Scheme.

4.6.3 Key informant interviews (KIIs) Key informant interviews are qualitative in-depth interviews with people who know what is going on in the community. The purpose of key informant interviews is to collect information from a wide range of people including community leaders, professionals, or residents who have firsthand knowledge about the community. These community experts, with their particular knowledge and understanding, provided insight on the nature of problems and give recommendations for solutions. Offices visited for KIIs included: Office of the Governor- Baringo County; Department of Lands Housing and Urban Development (LHUD); water Resource Authority (WRA)-Kabarnet Office; Area MP-Baringo South Constituency; Office of the MCA-Mochongi Ward; Kenya Wild Office-Kabarnet office; KWS office-Mutitu in Mochongoi; Kenya Forest Service (KFS)-Ol Arabel Forest Station; Community Forest Association (CFA)-Ol Arabel Forest; Endorois Welfare Council (EWC); Assistant County Commissioner (ACC); Chiefs (Kimoriot and Mochongoi Locations); Assistant Chiefs (Kimoriot, Kamailel, Mochongoi, Kapnarok and Kapkechir Sub Locations); Wazee wa Mitaa (16 villages); Opinion Leaders; among others.

4.6.4 Social Economic Survey Social economic survey was conducted to get a fair opinion of social economic status and their perception on impact of degazettement of Ol Arabel Forest for Mochongoi Settlement Scheme. The survey was conducted through stratified random sampling to ensure information gatherings covered a significant sample area and population.

4.6.5 Open public consultation meeting Public meetings provided an opportunity to consult large numbers of people to fulfill principle of inclusivity. Three major public barazas/meeting held at Kabel, Kamailel and Kimoriot (minutes attached). The first meeting for Block II (Kamailel) was held at Kong‘asis trading centre on 20th December 2019. The second meeting for Block III (Kimoriot) was held at Kimoriot trading

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centre on 21st December 2019. The third meeting for Block I was held at Kabel on 4th January 2020. In attendance were: MCA-Mochongi Ward; Community Forest Association (CFA)-Ol Arabel Forest; Chiefs (Kimoriot and Mochongoi Locations); Assistant Chiefs (Kimoriot, Kamailel, Mochongoi, Kapnarok and Kapkechir Sub Locations); Wazee wa Mitaa (16 villages); Opinion Leaders; among others.

4.6.6 Review of RIMs Mochongoi Settlement Scheme has been surveyed. The Land Registry Maps (RIMs) for the settlement scheme were reviewed. There are 37 RIMs covering the entire settlement scheme. Block I (Mochongoi) consists of 18 RIMs, Block II (Kamailel) 10 RIMs and Block III (Kimoriot) 9 RIMs. There are 5672 parcels of land in 37 Maps (―RIMs‖) covering a total acreage of 10,056.36 hectares (Ha). Out of these, 1409 have title deeds, 2426 have allotment letters and 3246 do not have allotment letters. Some of the land owners have paid SFT funds.

The number of RIMs obtained for review were 3 for Block I, 7 for Block II and 8 for Block III. It was established that there is minimal encroachment beyond the surveyed area for block I since it borders Laikipia to the East, Escarpment to the West and reserved land to the North. Similarly there is minimal encroachment beyond the surveyed area for block III since it borders Laikipia to the North, East and South except the Western part of Tuyopei. However there was settlement beyond the surveyed land for Block II especially the Southern part.

4.6.7 Delineation of Boundary/Cut Line The IESIA Team conducted boundary delineation between the settlement and forest. The aim was to establish the proposed boundary/cutline for degazettement of Ol Arabel for Mochongoi Settlement scheme. The activity involved Chiefs, Assistant Chiefs, Wazee wa Mitaa and elders. The exercise took at total of 9 days to work along the entire Mochongoi Settlement Scheme two days to walk along the boundary for block III, two days for Block II boundary and 5 days for Block I). The exercise was structured to take the form of relay where every village leaders (Assistant Chief, Mzee wa Mtaa and elders) would hand over the IESIA team to the next village and the

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exercise continued smoothly till the end. The length of boundary for block I, II and III are 71.179Km, 28.479Km and 42.365 Km respectively. The total length of the outer boundary covering block I, II and III was estimated at 137.8km. The respective areas were 47.075km2, 18.270Km2 and 31.927Km2 with a total of 97.272Km2 covering block I, II and III.

4.6.8 Inventory of Public Utilities The IESIA Team conducted an inventory of the public utilities both existing and proposed. The public utilities included schools; churches; water projects; health facilities; markets; trading centres among others. The people involved during this exercise included: Chiefs; Assistant Chiefs; Wazee wa Mitaa, elders among other community opinion leaders.

4.6.9 Administration of Structured Questionnaires In addition to public barazas, leaders and stakeholder consultative meetings, key informant interviews (KIIs), the IESIA team administered questionnaires. Prior to administering the questionnaires, the community and stakeholders were taken through the IESIA questions concerning the proposed degazettement of Ol Arabel Forest for Mochongoi settlement scheme as contained in the questionnaires and how to fill them. They were told to freely fill the questionnaires individually and give a clear picture of Mochongoi settlement Scheme including potential (positive and negative), mitigation measures for adverse effects and how to resolve conflicts among other information indicated in the questionnaire. A total of 185 respondents were involved (55 for block I, 80 for Block II and 50 for Block III). The summaries of questionnaires are given in the pie charts and graphs below.

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4.6.9.1 Summary of Questionnaires Response (Block I: Mochongoi)

Figure 3: Percentage of Respondents by Gender (Block I)

Figure 4: Percentage of Respondents on Years as Resident (Block I)

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Figure 5: Percentage of Respondents on Human Wildlife Conflict (Block I)

Figure 6: Percentage of Respondents on Wildlife involved in Conflict (Block I)

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Figure 7: Percentage of Respondents on Community Intervention on Climate Change (Block I)

Figure 8: Percentage of Respondents on Benefits of Degazettement (Block I)

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Figure 9: Percentage of Respondents on Negative Impacts of Degazettement (Block I)

Figure 10: Percentage of Respondents on Mitigation Measures (Block I)

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4.6.9.2 Summary of Questionnaires Response (Block II: Kamailel)

Figure 11: Percentage of Respondents by Gender (Block II)

Figure 12: Percentage of Respondents on Years as Resident (Block II)

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Figure 13: Percentage of Respondents on Human Wildlife Conflict (Block II)

Figure 14: Percentage of Respondents on Wildlife involved in Conflict (Block II)

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Figure 15: Percentage of Respondents on Community Intervention on Climate Change (Block II)

Figure 16: Percentage of Respondents on Benefits of Degazettement (Block II)

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Figure 17: Percentage of Respondents on Negative Impacts of Degazettement (Block II)

Figure 18: Percentage of Respondents on Mitigation Measures (Block II)

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4.6.9.3 Summary of Questionnaires Response (Block III: Kimoriot)

Figure 19: Percentage of Respondents by Gender (Block III)

Figure 20: Percentage of Respondents on Years as Resident (Block III)

Figure 21: Percentage of Respondents on Human Wildlife Conflict (Block III)

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Figure 22: Percentage of Respondents on Wildlife involved in Conflict (Block III)

Figure 23: Percentage of Respondents on Community Intervention on Climate Change (Block III)

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Figure 24: Percentage of Respondents on Benefits of Degazettement (Block III)

Figure 25: Percentage of Respondents on Negative Impacts of Degazettement (Block III)

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Figure 26: Percentage of Respondents on Mitigation Measures (Block III)

4.6.9.4 Responses of community management practices on riparian zones and water catchment . Planting trees . Planting grass/cover crops . Restricting animals from the catchment areas . Cultivating away from riparian zones . Terracing

4.6.9.5 Responses of types of trees planted by Mochongoi residents . Cypress . Eucalyptus/Blue gum . Gravellier . Fruit trees (avocadoes, guavas, mangoes)

4.6.9.6 Responses of types of grass planted by Mochongoi residents . Star grass . Boma rhode grass . Nappier grass . Kikuyu grass

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4.6.9.7 Responses of types of wildlife in Mochongoi . Elephants . Monkeys . Baboons . Hyena . Bird species . Bush backs . Wild pigs . Buffalo . Leopards . Antelopes . Gazelles . Warthog 4.6.9.8 Responses of set aside protected areas in Mochongoi Block 1  Kapyemit  Ndorote Dam  Manuwari Water Catchment  Block Water Catchment  Chepkosi Water Catchment Block 2  Yatieb Kabai Water Catchment  Kokwenbei Dam  Locheria  Kapkitambaa Dam  Kapkechir Water Catchment  Ol-Arabel forest  Sokee Water Catchment  Lobenyo Water Catchment  Chebsokosi Wetland  Kapnarok Dam

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 Kaptorokwo Water Catchment Block 3  Sitotwe, Soyonin, Tachasis and Kapkiris Water Catchment  Soyonin Afforestation  Sitotwe Dam  Londirim Forest Land  Koitilil Block  Kabindasum Shrine

4.6.9.9 Responses on Complaints and how they can be mitigated 1. Land  Endorois claiming that Mochongoi is their ancestral land Mitigation  Ensure consultations are done with all stakeholders and mediate all parties to arrive at one voice and avoid discrimination. 2. Public Health  Open defecation may lead to spread of diseases.  Washing clothes and bathing in water sources. Mitigation  Public Health Department to ensure every household builds a toilet.  Provision of piped clean water for sanitation purposes 3. Human Wildlife Conflict  Some parts of Mochongoi are wildlife migration corridors  Lack of compensation on wildlife crop damage Mitigation  Establish a cutline between settlement scheme and forest/wildlife areas  Avoid wild life habitat and corridors  KWS to consider putting up electric fence to separate wildlife areas and settlement scheme.  KWS to respond swiftly to wild life tress pass into settlement scheme particularly farmland and residential areas.  KWS to compensate for wild life crop damage, livestock and human life losses

Note: The sample questionnaires, minutes for public/stakeholders barazas/meetings and Maps are attached/appended/annexed to this report. 124

CHAPTER FIVE: DESCRIPTION OF SETTLEMENT SCHEME 5.1 The Location of Mochongoi Settlement Scheme

Figure 27: Satellite Map Showing Location of Mochongoi Settlement Scheme 125

The Proposed Degazettement of Ol Arabel Forest for Mochongoi Settlement Scheme is located between GPS Coordinates 37N 186580-203432E and 14591-42146N in Mochongoi Ward; Baringo South Sub County; Baringo County. Mochongoi Settlement scheme is 95km from Kabarnet town along Kabarnet-Marigat-Karandi road (Kabel Trading Centre).

5.2 Establishment of Mochongoi Settlement Scheme Mochongoi Settlement scheme was established in the year 1989 after the former retired President His Excellency Daniel Arap Moi gave directive that people who had surrendered their land for the construction of Kirandich dam, schools, churches, the airstrip and the Government Training Institute (GTI) to be allocated land in Mochongoi. The settlement was set up in the Ol- Arabel Forest Reserve. However the due process of the degazettement of the forest for the establishment of the settlement was not undertaken at that time. This led to the development of the informal Mochongoi settlement causing encroachment and land ownership problems.

The scheme has three blocks which have not been degazetted namely: Block I (107) – Mochongoi Block II (110) – Kamailel Block III (111) – Kimoriot

5.3 Current Mochongoi Settlement Scheme The three blocks constitute a total acreage of 10,056.36 hectares (Ha) and some land owners have paid SFT funds. Current status of the three blocks is as summarized below: Size of the entire scheme is 10,056.36 Ha i) Total number of parcels = 5672 ii) Total number of parcels with letters of offer = 2426 iii) Total number of parcels without letters of offer = 3246 iv) Total number of parcels with title deeds = 1409 v) Total number of maps covering the scheme = 37 (18+10+9)

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5.4 Public Utilities Mochongoi scheme consists of three blocks namely; Block I-Mochongoi, Block II-Kamailel and Block 111-Kimoriot. Several projects have been implemented in each block while others have been proposed for implementation by the residents. Those mapped out during the study were as follows: 5.4.1 Block I: Mochongoi 5.4.1.1 Existing Public Utilities . 1 Bus park . 2 tertiary institution . 1 water kiosk . 19 primary schools . 2 Market places . 3 cattle dips . 5 Health facilities . 10 trading centers . 30 churches . 7 water projects including boreholes . 8 administrative units . 6 secondary schools . 7 dams . 8 Water catchments . 1 cattle sale yard . 3 Nurseries & ECDE . 1 Cereal Store . 2 Community Land . 2 Stadiums . 1 historical site

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5.4.1.2 Proposed Public Utilities A total of 45 proposed public utilities were mapped; 2 primary schools, 6 secondary schools, 2 tertiary institutions, 2 cattle dips, 4 trading centers, 1 administrative unit, 2 health facilities, 3 dams, 14 churches, 4 water tanks, 1 market, 1 slaughterhouse, 1 borehole, 1 Garden, and one social hall. 5.4.2 Block II: Kamailel 5.4.2.1 Existing Public Utilities . 1 tertiary institution . 1 research institute . 8 primary schools . 3 Market places . 2 cattle dips . 2 Health facilities . 5 trading centers . 17churches . 7 water projects (3 borehole, 4 water tanks) . 3 administrative units . 3 secondary schools . 4 dams . 2 cemetery . 1 CBO . 1 slaughter house . 1 social hall . 1 afforestation . 1 stadium 5.4.2.2 Proposed Public Utilities A total of 18 proposed public utilities were mapped; 1 primary school, 1 secondary school, 1 special school, 1 cattle dip, 2 trading center, 2 churches, 2 administrative units, 1 health facility, 2 market places, 1 dam, 1 cemetery, 1 shrine and 2 community land area.

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5.4.3 Block III: Kimoriot 5.4.3.1 Existing Public Utilities . 1 tertiary institution . 12 primary schools . 1 cattle dips . 2 Health facilities . 6 trading centers . 15 churches . 5 water points including catchments . 5 administrative units . 4 secondary schools . 5 dams . 1public shade . 1 Cooperative Society . 2 slaughter house . 1 agro forest . 1 Cemetery . 1 social hall . 1 milk coolant 5.4.3.2 Proposed Public Utilities A total of 15 proposed public utilities were mapped; 1 shrine, 1 primary school, 2 secondary schools, 1 tertiary institution, 1shrine, 1 church, 1social hall, 3 administrative units, 1cooperative society, one community land area and 2 market places 5.5 Dominant Tree and Grass Species 5.5.1 Exotic trees . Cypress . Cupressus lusitanica . Eucalyptus/Blue gum (Eucalyptus saligna) . Grevellea robusta . Casuarina equisetifolia . Fruit trees (avocadoes, guavas, mangoes)

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5.5.2 Indigenous . Syzigum guinense . Albizia gummifera . Juniperus procera . Ekebegia capensis . fa*gara microphylla . Prunus africana . Olea africana . Podocurpus falcutus . Podocurpus latifolia . Croton megalocarpus . Teclea guminii . Palyscius kikuyuensis . Croton macrostachus 5.5.3 Grass planted . Star grass . Boma rhode grass . Nappier grass . Kikuyu grass

5.6 Wildlife The predominant wildlife within the settlement scheme includes: . Elephants . Monkeys . Baboons . Hyena . Bird species . Wild pigs . Bush backs . Buffalo . Leopards

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. Antelopes . Gazelles . Warthog

5.7 Protected areas The following protected areas were mapped and validated during presentation of draft IESIA Report to stakeholders and communities. 5.7.1 Block 1 . Kapyemit . Ndorote Dam . Manuwari Water Catchment . Block Water Catchment . Chepkosi Water Catchment . Ngarie Water Catchment . Simotwe Dam . Kabel Water Catchment . Kapkechir Water Catchment . Mochongoi Water Catchment . Lobenyo Water Catchment 5.7.2 Block 2 . Yatieb Kabai Water Catchment . Kokwenbei Dam . Locheria . Kapkitambaa Dam . Kapkechir Water Catchment . Ol-Arabel forest . Sokee Water Catchment . Lobenyo Water Catchment . Chebsokosi Wetland . Kapnarok Dam . Kabuswo Afforestation . Kaptorokwo Water Catchment

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5.7.3 Block 3 . Tendenbei Water Catchment . Kapchemorna Stream . Kokwomoi Spring . Kabei Spring . Sitotwe Water Catchment . Soyonin Water Catchment . Tachasis Water Catchment . Kapkiris Water Catchments . Soyonin Afforestation . Sitotwe Dam . Londirim Forest Land . Koitilil Block . Kabindasum Shrine . Trimnyonin Dam . Lalai/ Kapindaram Water Point . Lake Baringo Water Catchment . Tuyobei Upper & Lower Dams . Mosop Dam

5.8 Community management practices on riparian zones and water catchment . Planting trees . Planting grass/cover crops . Restricting animals from the catchment areas . Cultivating away from riparian zones . Terracing

5.9. Land Cover Mochongoi settlement scheme land cover at the time of study consisted of 15.3% tree cover; 4.7% Shrub cover; 8.7% grass land; 71% crop land; 0.2% bare areas and 0.1% built areas. Combining tree and shrub covers gives a total of 20% vegetation cover. This is above the 10% vegetation cover recommended under the Constitution of Kenya 2010 and Forest Conservation and Management Act No 34 of 2016. The vegetation map for Mochongoi Settlement Scheme is given below.

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Figure 28: Map of Mochongoi Settlement Scheme Showing Land Cover

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CHAPTER SIX: POTENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS 6.1. Overview In any development initiative, the focus is to improve the economic well-being of an area in terms of increased land use rate, increased cash flow and levies to local authorities. In the same line these development should always consider the environmental wellbeing of the current population and the generation to come and thus a balance is attained between the two hence termed as sustainable development. The proposed degazettement of Ol Arabel Forest for Mochongoi Settlement Scheme is expected to have the following positive and negative impacts.

6.2. Positive Impacts These refer to beneficial gains arising from the implementation of the proposed Degazettement of Ol Arabel for Mochongoi Settlement Scheme. The gains discussed range from immediate to long-term. These include: . Title deed guarantee legal land ownership . Encourage/promote individual environmental responsibility . Reduction of human-wildlife conflicts due to clear boundary between settlement scheme forest and wildlife areas/corridors. . Land tenure security . Increased land value . Title deed can use as collateral for loans . Establishment of permanent residences . Promote social stability and security of the rural community . Improved agricultural production (increased/improved crop and livestock production) . Promotion of food security from crop and livestock production . Promoting business opportunities from agro-based industries including agro-processing and value addition . Improved public health. People will construct toilets thereby reducing OD. In addition land ownership documents will promote acquisition of medical cover. . Increased income to rural community (Income generation from commercial farming and agribusiness) . Help generate resources for education

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. Reduce conflicts with neighbors especially land disputes . Enhance proper land development and management . Encourages forest protection due to clear boundary between the forest and settlement . Enables compensation for crop damages by wildlife . Promote of rural employment creation . Reduction of Rural Poverty . Improved Livelihood and living standards of the rural community . Improved infrastructure (roads, electricity, water etcetera); . Increased Generation of Revenue to the Government . Economic Growth and Development

6.3. Negative Impacts The negative environmental impacts normally arising from establishment of settlement schemes are loss of biodiversity, drought, floods, deforestation, landslides, land degradation, erosion, environment pollution, emergence of marine related diseases and epidemics, invasive species among others. These are impacts from climate change effects over a long period of time. In Baringo County, the main environmental threats/hazards affecting the county include Droughts, floods, conflicts (Natural resource based including wildlife), land degradation and landslides, human diseases, animal diseases and crop diseases, invasive species among others. The ranking of Environmental threats/hazards in Baringo County is given in section 2.17.2 (table 17). The specific negative impacts arising from the degazettement of Ol Arabel of Mochongoi Settlement scheme include: . Reduction in forest cover due to deforestation, logging, and charcoal burning among others). . Soil erosion from crop and livestock production (over-cultivation and overstocking/ overgrazing) and other human activities leading to landscape degradation, water pollution and siltation of water pans and dams. . Encourages increase in population leading to increased pressure on natural resources . Degradation of cultural and recreation sites . Encroachment into wildlife areas and corridors leading to wildlife habitat degradation, poaching and wildlife migration.

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. Human wildlife conflict leading to crop damage, loss of livestock and human life. . Encroachment of catchment areas and riparian zones leading to catchment degradation . Loss of biodiversity . Water shortage from unreliable rainfall due to water catchment degradation especially reduced vegetation cover . Climate change that leads to extreme weather condition including drought, famine and floods . Water pollution from agrochemicals used for crop and livestock production . Increased forest fires from agricultural activities such as burning to clear farms, charcoal burning and even cigarettes. . Solid and liquid waste Problems (Environment/Water Pollution). . Increased Water Demand putting pressure on existing water sources and rationing . Increased Power Demand putting pressure on existing power sources and rationing . Insecurity from Neighbouring Communities (Pokot) occasioned by cattle rustling particularly at the Northern parts of Block I including Kapkechir and Tuyotich.

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CHAPTER SEVEN: ANALYSIS OF PROJECT ALTERNATIVES 7.1 Alternatives This section analyses the project alternatives in terms of the available options for degazettement, relocation and status quo (No alternative). It also looks at uncertainties during the project cycle. The comparison of alternatives will assist in establishing the best alternative for achieving degazettement while minimizing environmental impacts, indicating the most environmentally friendly or best practicable environmental option.

7.2 The Proposed degazettement of Ol Arabel Forest for Mochongoi Settlement Scheme Alternative The National Assembly Public Petition by the people of Mochongoi Settlement Scheme dated 23rd February 2016 requesting for approval of de-gazettement of the Mochongoi Settlement Scheme is considered. The land proposed for degazettement is currently used as agricultural land and settlement since 1989 following a Presidential order. Since then, the people have settled, practiced crop and livestock production and other activities. The National and County Government have invested in the settlement scheme including administrative boundaries comprising Two (2) Locations (Kimoriot and Mochongoi) and Five (5) Sub Locations (Kimoriot, Kamailel, Mochongoi, Kapkechir and Kapnarok); many public utilities such as primary schools, secondary schools, health facilities, water projects, infrastructure (roads, electricity) among others as detailed in section 5.4 in this report.

This alternative implies that the petition succeeds and the land continues to be used as agricultural land and settlement. The people of Mochongoi Settlement Scheme will enjoy the fruits of the land ownership as detailed in section 6.2. This will pave way for issuance of title deeds. Kenya Forest Service (KFS) and Community Forest Association (CFA) will be able to manage the remaining section of the forest. In addition, KWS will be able to manage the wildlife and contain within the forested areas and corridors reducing human-wildlife conflict. It will also create harmony and good neighbourliness as envisaged in Participatory Forest Management. This alternative implies degazettement of approximately 10,056.36 hectares (Ha) of forest land to agricultural land, providing a long term solution to land ownership issues and community partnership on conservation of Ol Arabel Forest. However, there are several negative impacts

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as indicated in section 6.3. Mitigation measures have been proposed and shall be used by the proponent (people of Mochongoi Settlement Scheme) to address these adverse effects.

7.3 Relocating settled community to an alternative Site This scenario envisages the decision that community has occupied the land illegally and has no ownership rights. Under such circ*mstances there are two approaches: the humane resettlement and forceful eviction.

The humane resettlement will involve identification of alternative land and resettling the people there. Although this alternative may be the best bargain for conservation of the forest, however the cost would be very high.

Relocation means that the Government has to look for another land for resettlement of all the people in Mochongoi settlement scheme. Looking for the land to accommodate 5672 Households (Homesteads) and completing the transfer of land ownership or lease agreement may take a long period although there is no guarantee that the land would be available. At present the County and National Government does not have an alternative land.

The forceful eviction will result in resistance and bad blood. The long term impact if this approach is negative as there will be no sustainability of programmes where community support is weak. Cases of arsons are likely to be regularly and cost of restoration could be very high.

7.4 The No Action Alternative The no action alternative occurs when it is difficult to take any of the above alternatives. Under this alternative, the status quo remains. The settlement scheme will remain as it is currently. Community living in the settlement will not be able to invest on the land and might result to more land degradation due to uncertainty and unwillingness to invest in areas you are not sure of status of tomorrow. This is not the best option as it will encourage further encroachment since there is no clear boundary/cutline between the settlement scheme and the forest.

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CHAPTER EIGHT: PROPOSED MITIGATION MEASURES 8.1 Introduction Integrated Environment and Social Impact Assessment (IESIA) is a complex process of establishing the adverse effects for degazettement of Ol Arabel Forest for Mochongoi Settlement Scheme and corresponding mitigation measures. Adverse effect is a negative result of an activity that causes destruction or deterioration to an environmental parameter either directly or indirectly. Mitigation measures represent the processes, activities or actions taken to avoid, reduce or remedy significant adverse environmental effects likely to be caused by the degazettement of Ol Arabel Forest for Mochongoi Settlement Scheme. The proposed mitigation measures to the anticipated/ identified potential negative impacts are highlighted below.

8.2 Mitigation for Reduction in Vegetation (Forest/Bush/Grass) Cover . Encourage natural regeneration in degraded areas. . Restoration of degraded areas within and outside the farms. . Plant trees and grass in open areas and steep slopes at the farms and adjacent areas. . All farms to have woodlots covering 10% of the land (for 5acres = ½ acre; 2.5 acres = ¼ acre). . Strengthen Ol Arabel CFA to participate in afforestation activities . Empower and promote farmers to practise agro-commercial forestry in settled areas (10% of land to have tree cover)

8.3 Mitigation for Catchment Degradation . The proposed interventions for the conservation of Mochongoi Settlement Scheme catchment include planting trees and grass strips on steep slopes, watersheds and reserved forest areas. . Riparian areas should be left in their natural state and strictly protected to provide a buffer for shielding water from pollution and other threats. . Degraded riparian areas should be rehabilitated by planting trees, shrubs or grass. Permitted activities should be recreation, research and education.

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. Area with springs should be strictly protected and no extractive activity should be allowed. Should ensure no livestock grazing in such areas to reduce pollution through fecal contamination. Degraded springs should be rehabilitated with indigenous local tree species with catchment values. . General catchment area should be protected and ensure natural vegetation is maintained or restored. . Encourage improvement of catchment value of agricultural land and conservation agriculture (CA).

8.4 Mitigation for Loss of Biodiversity The major threats to biological diversity in Mochongoi are reduction in forest cover and encroachment of water catchment and riparian zones generally referred to as protected areas. Other include land degradation and pollution occasioned by poor land use practices. . Integrated Conservation Approach: Integrated conservation is a strategy aimed at emphasizing increased conservation efforts through on-farm (in-situ) intervention that cumulatively addresses the entire settlement scheme responsively and collectively. . Promote the sustainable utilization of biodiversity resources and products. This is aimed at neutralizing the overexploitation of biodiversity resources by controlling charcoal burning, overgrazing of pastures and limiting stock herds; adopting appropriate land use and agricultural practices by promoting efficient farming techniques such as Conservation Agriculture (CA) and Climate Smart Agriculture (CSA). . Promote awareness in biodiversity conservation. Community Forest Association, Kenya Forest Service and county government need to inform the public by providing adequate information through improved extension services and provide financial and material support to biodiversity interventions and solutions. . Promote and enhance the conservation of biodiversity through in-situ, preventive and restorative (curative) interventions. . Management of introduced species and regular surveillance of invasive alien species that threatens indigenous species. These include invasive weeds that threaten crop, pasture and eventually food security.

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. The community needs to embrace voluntary tree planting in their farms as well other areas within the forest, catchment areas and riparian zones as their contribution towards environmental conservation and rehabilitation of degraded areas. . The community shall have tree nurseries as part of self- reliance and continued and sustained efforts on achieving 10% vegetation cover within and outside their farms. Fauna The Forest is known to host a variety of animals which includes: Elephants; Monkeys; Baboons; Hyenas; Wild pigs; Bush backs; Buffalo; Leopards; Antelopes; Gazelles; Warthog etc. It also hosts a variety of bird species, reptiles and amphibians. These animals, birds, reptiles and amphibians are residents of the forest and their movement is usually determined by factors such as drought, water availability and forage availability. In general, the settlement activities disturb fauna though in a small way. Such small animal/bird life will have to find new nesting homes although many can live within homesteads and forested areas around the farms. Mitigation Measures . The people of Mochongoi Settlement Scheme shall practise good crop and livestock husbandry in order to minimize disturbance of the flora and fauna environment during crop and livestock production as well as other human activities. . The community shall restore/rehabilitate cleared vegetation on steep slopes, water catchment, riparian zones, reserved forest and degraded areas for improved flora and fauna environment. . The community needs to support tree planting within their farms as well as other areas within the forest, catchment areas and riparian zones as their contribution towards rehabilitation of degraded areas and improving the habitat for fauna.

8.5 Mitigation for Soil Erosion, Landscape Degradation and Siltation 8.5.1 Overview Soil erosion is a gradual process that occurs when the impact of water or wind detaches and removes soil particles, causing the soil to deteriorate. Soil deterioration and low water quality due to erosion and surface runoff have become severe problems in many parts of Kenya and Baringo County. Change of land use from forest to agriculture involve clearing of natural vegetation and replacing with crops. Without good agricultural practices this can cause soil

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erosion resulting to landscape degradation, pollution of rivers downstream and siltation of water pans and dams.

8.5.2 Types of Erosion Sheet erosion (water) is almost invisible. Lighter colored soils are a sign that over the year‘s erosion has taken its toll. Wind erosion is highly visible. Although it is a problem, water erosion is generally much more severe. Rill erosion occurs during heavy rains, when small rills form over an entire hillside, making farming difficult. Gully erosion makes gullies, some of them huge, impossible to cross with farm machinery. Ephemeral erosion occurs in natural depressions. It differs from gully erosion in that the area can be crossed by farm equipment. 8.5.3 Mitigation Measures Crop Rotation: Rotating in high-residue crops can reduce erosion as the layer of residue protects topsoil from being carried away by wind and water. Conservation Tillage: Conventional tillage produces a smooth surface that leaves soil vulnerable to erosion. Conservation tillage methods such as no-till planting, strip rotary tillage, chiseling, and disking leave more of the field surface covered with crop residue that protects the soil from eroding forces. Contour Farming: Planting in row patterns that run level around a hill instead of up and down the slope has been shown to reduce runoff and decrease the risk of water erosion. Strip Farming: In areas where a slope is particularly steep or there is no alternative method of preventing erosion, planting fields in long strips alternated in a crop rotation system (strip farming) has proven effective. Terrace Farming: Many farmers have successfully combated erosion by planting in flat areas created on hillsides in a step-like formation (terrace farming). Grass Waterways: By planting grass in areas of concentrated water flow, farmers can prevent much of the soil erosion that results from runoff, as the grass stabilizes the soil while still providing an outlet for drainage.

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Diversion Structures: Used often for gully control, diversion structures cause water to flow along a desired path and away from areas at high risk for erosion. Boundary tree planting: Trees planted in rows reduces the speed of wind. In addition it will increase vegetation cover contributing to the achievement of 10% tree cover. 8.6 Mitigation for Degradation of Cultural and Recreation Sites . Protect and rehabilitee identified existing and proposed cultural sites . Document all cultural and recreation sites . Provide guides and signage to all cultural and recreation sites

8.7 Mitigation for Wildlife Habitat Degradation and Human-Wild life Conflict 8.7.1 Overview The encroachment into wildlife areas and corridors causes wildlife habitat and corridors degradation, encourages poaching and wildlife migration; human wildlife conflict leading to crop damage, loss of livestock and human injury and loss of life. 8.7.2 Mitigation . The proposed boundary/cutline between the settlement scheme and forest, wildlife areas/corridors will discourage encroachment into the forest/wildlife areas and restrict movement across the boundary of human, livestock and wildlife to avoid human-wildlife, livestock-wildlife and crop-wildlife conflicts. This will also enable compensation for crop damage, livestock loss and loss of human life from wildlife especially elephants, monkeys, hyenas and baboons among others. . There is need for KWS to consider putting up an electric fence to restrict wildlife from entering the settlement scheme and causing havoc including crop damage, loss of livestock and human life. In addition, KWS to strengthen commitment on reducing poaching. . Restore destroyed vegetation in wildlife habitat areas and corridors . Promote community participation in conservation and management of wildlife and their habitats and corridors

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8.8 Mitigation for Reduced Rainfall and Climate Change 8.8.1 Overview The effects of climate change and reduced rainfall as a result of land degradation is real. These includes increased average temperature, shifts in the seasons and an increasing frequency of extreme weather events and other climate change impacts including floods, landslides, droughts, locust, pests and diseases among others. Some of the changes may not be easily reversed, however there is need to adapt and build resilience. Adaptation refers to adjustments in ecological, social, or economic systems in response to actual or expected climatic change and their effects or impacts. It refers to changes in processes, practices, and structures to moderate potential damages or to benefit from opportunities associated with climate change. The community needs to adapt solutions and implement actions to respond to the impacts of climate change that are already happening, as well as prepare for future impacts.

The adaptation actions should follow a National, County and community-driven, gender- responsive, participatory and fully transparent approach, considering vulnerable groups, communities and ecosystems, and should be based on and guided by the best available science and, as appropriate, traditional knowledge, knowledge of indigenous peoples and local knowledge systems, with a view to integrating adaptation into relevant socioeconomic and environmental policies and actions at National, County and Community level.

8.8.2 Mitigation . Establishing tree nurseries, planting trees, cover crops and tree crops. There is need for reforestation of degraded areas and implementing the 10% tree planting and vegetation cover policy. . Good crop and livestock husbandry including crop rotation, terracing, mulching, controlled use of agro-chemicals for weeding, pest control by using prescribed amounts of agro-chemicals and safe use. There is need for cultivation away from riparian zones and steep slopes. . Practise sustainable crop and livestock production by embracing Climate Smart Agriculture (CSA) within Mochongoi Settlement Scheme.

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. Soil and Water Conservation measures including construction of conservation dams, gabions among others. There is need to mainstream soil and water conservation in every agricultural activity in Mochongoi Settlement Scheme. . Controlling animal stocks to manageable stocks. There is need to practise intensive livestock production as opposed to the traditional livestock keeping (nomadism) trespassing every available land including the forest. . Safeguarding protected areas including water catchment, riparian zones, reserved forests, wetlands among others. There is need to reduce and or eliminate illegal logging and charcoal burning in the protected areas. . Increasing development and use of renewable energy where possible and applicable for instance solar energy in water supply and agro-processing and value addition e.g. drying process; heating among other processes and activities. . Community environment civil education for awareness and collective responsibility on conservation and sustainability.

8.9 Mitigation for Forest Fires 8.9.1 Overview Forest fires degrade forests, bushes and grass quickly and the recovery process takes long. Rehabilitated forests will not have enough time to grow and become forests of economic and ecological value and all silvicultural treatments will bear no fruits without Fire Management Strategy (FMS). Most forest fires are started by humans and their activities. 8.9.2 Mitigation It is important to encourage communities to assume control and ‗ownership‘ over fire management. Community Based Forest Fire Management (CBFFM) helps to integrate fire and people into land-use and vegetation management systems. The County Government, CFA and KFS to sensitize community on preventive measures to stop the start and spread of fires within the farms and forest. The measures include fire breaks on farms and forest cutline; responsible citizens/community members who do not drop burning cigarettes on grass land, bush land or forested areas. In addition the County Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries (CMoALF) need to discourage farmers from farm clearing by burning. This is the major cause of

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forest/bush/grass fires that normally spread very fast consuming the entire region especially during the dry season. 8.10 Mitigation for Solid and Liquid waste Problems (Environment/Water Pollution) 8.10.1 Overview The settlement scheme increases solid and liquid waste generated. Solid wastes include fecal materials from Open Defecation (OD) from human beings and Livestock among others. The liquid wastes comes from overland flows/runoff wash outs from fields/farms including OD wastes; urine (human and livestock); agrochemicals (fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides, acaracides); leachate from dump sites; soil/earth elements from erosion among others. All these wastes are likely to pollute water ways and consequently water sources including streams, rivers, springs, water pans and dams. When such pollution/contamination is continuous and persistent, it eventually contaminates/pollutes ground water including shallow wells and boreholes. 8.10.2. Mitigation . Agro-chemicals to be applied in quantities that are utilizable at the point of use. The County Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries (CMoALF) need to train farmers on safe use of agrochemicals at farm level. . The farmers need to practise good crop and livestock husbandry to minimize land degradation that triggers soil erosion, water pollution and siltation of water pans and dams. In addition there is need for rehabilitation of degraded catchment areas. . County government to facilitate waste handling and disposal from trading centres (Mochongoi, Kabel, Tuyotich, Kapkechir, Ngarie, Koimugul, Kokwenbei and Keneroi) in Block I; (Kamailel, Tulwopsoo, Kapkoros, Kong‘asis and Ng‘enyilel) in Block II; (Kimoriot, Kaburwo, Tendenbei, Kibagenge and Tuyobei) in Block III. Waste receptacles need to be placed at strategic points to discourage littering. The wastes should be segregated to encourage recycling where possible and applicable.

8.11 Mitigation for Increased Water Demand 8.11.1 Overview The water requirement for the settlement scheme for domestic, livestock, irrigation, wildlife increases with increase in population and human activities.

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8.11.2 Mitigation . There is need to maintain the ecological flow for downstream users and uses. . The community and public institutions to practise rain water harvesting including roof catchments, water pans, dams among others to enhance collection and storage of rain water for use during the dry season. . Community need to be sensitized on reducing wasting the water.

8.12 Mitigation for Increased Power Demand 8.12.1 Overview The increase in rural population and institutions triggers increased/high power consumption within the settlement scheme. The community will be encouraged to conserve as much energy as possible and energy conserving appliances should be used. Energy conservation involves proper use of electrical appliances, lighting systems and other electrical gadgets used for different purposes. 8.12.2 Mitigation . The community to consider using renewable energy where possible and applicable for instance solar energy in water supply and agro-processing and value addition e.g. drying process; heating among other processes and activities. . All electrical appliances should be switched off when not in use. . Put off all lights when not in use. . Use a design that is environmentally sound to avoid use of electricity for air conditioning . Use energy conserving electric lamps for general lighting. . Utilize natural light inside buildings to avoid using electricity for lighting during the day.

8.13 Mitigation for Insecurity from Neighbouring Communities 8.13.1 Overview The people of Mochongoi settlement scheme especially in the northern part of Block I including Kapkechir and Tuyotich experiences insecurity challenges from the neighbouring communities practising cattle rustling.

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8.13.2 Mitigation . Increase security patrol . Deploy/Facilitate security scout/rangers . Promote community Policing . Promote intercommunity meetings . Establish water and pasture management committees . Mainstream pease building and conflict resolution . Establish Police post in Tuyotich and or equip the neighbouring police posts in preparedness for emergency response.

8.14 Immediate On-site (In-situ) Interventions . Establish a boundary/cutline between the settlement scheme and forest, wildlife areas/corridors. This will discourage encroachment into the forest/wildlife areas and restrict movement across the boundary of human, livestock and wildlife to avoid human- wildlife, livestock-wildlife and crop-wildlife conflicts. This will also enable compensation for crop damage, livestock loss and loss of human life from wildlife especially elephants, monkeys, hyenas and baboons among others. . KWS need to consider putting up an electric fence to restrict wildlife from entering the settlement scheme and causing havoc including crop damage, loss of livestock and human life. In addition, KWS to strengthen commitment on reducing poaching. . Establishing tree nurseries, planting trees, cover crops and tree crops. There is need for reforestation of degraded areas and implementing the 10% tree planting and vegetation cover policy. Ol Arabel CFA and KFS need to mainstream tree planting and rehabilitation of degraded within Mochongoi settlement scheme by encouraging the community to take lead role emulating the few examples of residents who have embraced the 10% vegetation cover policy and commercial tree planting. . Good crop and livestock husbandry including crop rotation, terracing, mulching, controlled use of agro-chemicals for weeding, pest control by using prescribed amounts of agro-chemicals and safe use. There is need for cultivation away from riparian zones and steep slopes.

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. Practise sustainable crop and livestock production by embracing Climate Smart Agriculture (CSA) within Mochongoi Settlement Scheme. . Soil and Water Conservation measures including construction of conservation dams, gabions among others. There is need to mainstream soil and water conservation in every agricultural activity in Mochongoi Settlement Scheme. . Controlling animal stocks to manageable stocks (avoid overstocking/overgrazing). There is need to practise intensive livestock production as opposed to the traditional livestock keeping (nomadism) trespassing every available land including the forest. . Safeguarding protected areas including water catchment, riparian zones, reserved forests, wetlands among others. There is need to reduce and or eliminate illegal logging and charcoal burning in the protected areas. . Increasing development and use of renewable energy where possible and applicable for instance solar energy in water supply and agro-processing and value addition e.g. drying process; heating among other processes and activities. . Community environment civil education for awareness and collective responsibility on the concept of conservation and sustainability. . Ol Arabel CFA, KFS and WRA to establish catchment/riparian management committees in the entire Mochongoi settlement scheme. They need to establish guidelines for the management of catchment/riparian/protected areas as well as enforcement and in compliance with the National and County policies, legislation, regulation, rules and guidelines. . County Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries to promote good crop and livestock husbandry in the entire Mochongoi settlement scheme.

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8.15 Long Term, Progressive and Continuous National/County/Stakeholder Interventions The National, County and Stakeholders need to promote on-farm (In-situ) conservation including: a) Establish a system of protected areas or areas where special measures need to be taken to conserve biological diversity; b) Develop, where necessary, guidelines for the selection, establishment and management of protected areas or areas where special measures need to be taken to conserve biological diversity; c) Regulate or manage biological resources important for the conservation of biological diversity whether within or outside protected areas with a view to ensuring their conservation and sustainable use; d) Promote the protection of ecosystems, natural habitats and the maintenance of viable populations of species in natural surroundings; e) Promote environmentally sound and sustainable development in areas adjacent to protected areas with a view to furthering protection of these areas; f) Rehabilitate and restore degraded ecosystems and promote the recovery of threatened species inter alia through the development and implementation of plans or other management strategies; g) Establish or maintain means to regulate, manage or control the risks associated with the use and release of living modified organisms resulting from biotechnology which are likely to have adverse environmental impacts that could affect the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, taking also into account the risks to human health; h) Prevent, control or eradicate the introduction of alien species which threaten ecosystems, habitats or species; i) Endeavour to provide the conditions needed for compatibility between present uses and the conservation of biological diversity and the sustainable use of its components; j) Subject to applicable policies/legislation/regulation/rules (National and County) to respect, preserve and maintain knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and local communities embodying traditional lifestyles relevant for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity and promote their wider application with the approval and involvement of the holders of such knowledge, innovations and practices

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and encourage the equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the utilization of such knowledge, innovations and practices; k) Develop or maintain necessary legislation and/or other regulatory provisions at County and National level for the protection of threatened species and populations; l) County Government to cooperate with Ol Arabel CFA and KFS in providing technical, financial and other support for in-situ (on-farm) conservation outlined in subparagraphs (a) to (k) for rehabilitation of degraded areas and to increase the vegetation cover to 10% or more in Mochongoi Settlement Scheme.

Table 22: Proposed Mitigation Measures against Negative Impacts Potential Impact 1 Reduction in Vegetation (Forest/Bush/Grass) Project Activities Settlement, Crop and Livestock Production Environmental Receptor Land, Forest, Water Duration Long term Magnitude Medium Mitigation Measures . Encourage natural regeneration in degraded areas. . Restoration of degraded areas within and outside the farms. . Plant trees and grass in open areas and steep slopes at the farms and adjacent areas. . All farms to have woodlots covering 10% of the land (for 5acres = ½ acre; 2.5 acres = ¼ acre). . Strengthen Ol Arabel CFA to participate in afforestation activities . Empower and promote farmers to practise agro-commercial forestry in settled areas (10% of land to have tree cover) Significance Medium/Direct/Progressive/Reducible/unavoidable impact Potential Impact 2 Catchment Degradation Project Activities Settlement; Crop and Livestock Production; Logging; Charcoal Burning Environmental Receptor Land, Forest, Water Duration Long term Magnitude Medium Mitigation Measures . The proposed interventions for the conservation of Mochongoi Settlement Scheme catchment include planting trees and grass strips on steep slopes, watersheds and reserved forest areas. . Riparian areas should be left in their natural state and strictly protected to provide a buffer for shielding water from pollution and other threats.

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. Degraded riparian areas should be rehabilitated by planting trees, shrubs or grass. Permitted activities should be recreation, research and education. . Area with springs should be strictly protected and no extractive activity should be allowed. Should ensure no livestock grazing in such areas to reduce pollution through fecal contamination. Degraded springs should be rehabilitated with indigenous local tree species with catchment values. . General catchment area should be protected and ensure natural vegetation is maintained or restored. . Encourage improvement of catchment value of agricultural land and conservation agriculture (CA). Significance Medium/Direct/Progressive/Reducible/unavoidable impact Potential Impact 3 Loss of Biodiversity Project Activities Settlement; Crop and Livestock Production; Logging; Charcoal Burning Environmental Receptor Flora and Fauna (Terrestrial and aquatic) Duration Long term Magnitude Medium Mitigation Measures . Integrated Conservation Approach: Integrated conservation is a strategy aimed at emphasizing increased conservation efforts through on-farm (in-situ) intervention that cumulatively addresses the entire settlement scheme responsively and collectively. . Promote the sustainable utilization of biodiversity resources and products. This is aimed at neutralizing the overexploitation of biodiversity resources by controlling charcoal burning, overgrazing of pastures and limiting stock herds; adopting appropriate land use and agricultural practices by promoting efficient farming techniques such as Conservation Agriculture (CA) and Climate Smart Agriculture (CSA). . Promote awareness in biodiversity conservation. Community Forest Association, Kenya Forest Service and county government need to inform the public by providing adequate information through improved extension services and provide financial and material support to biodiversity interventions and solutions. . Promote and enhance the conservation of biodiversity through in-situ, preventive and restorative (curative) interventions. . Management of introduced species and regular surveillance of invasive alien species that threatens indigenous species. These include invasive weeds that threaten crop, pasture and eventually food security. . The community shall restore/rehabilitate cleared vegetation on steep slopes, water catchment, riparian zones, reserved forest and degraded areas for improved flora and fauna environment. . The people of Mochongoi Settlement Scheme shall practise good crop

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and livestock husbandry in order to minimize disturbance of the flora and fauna environment during crop and livestock production as well as other human activities. . The community needs to embrace voluntary tree planting in their farms as well other areas within the forest, catchment areas and riparian zones as their contribution towards environmental conservation and rehabilitation of degraded areas and improving the habitat for flora and fauna. . The community shall have tree nurseries as part of self- reliance and continued and sustained efforts on achieving 10% vegetation cover within and outside their farms. Significance Medium/Direct/Progressive/Reducible/unavoidable impact Potential Impact 4, 5 & 6 Soil Erosion, Landscape Degradation and Siltation Project Activities Settlement; Crop and Livestock Production; Road Construction Environmental Receptor Land, Water, Water Pans/dams and Human beings Duration Medium to long term Magnitude Medium Mitigation Measures . Crop Rotation: Rotating in high-residue crops can reduce erosion as the layer of residue protects topsoil from being carried away by wind and water. . Conservation Tillage: Conventional tillage produces a smooth surface that leaves soil vulnerable to erosion. Conservation tillage methods such as no-till planting, strip rotary tillage, chiseling, and disking leave more of the field surface covered with crop residue that protects the soil from eroding forces. . Contour Farming: Planting in row patterns that run level around a hill instead of up and down the slope has been shown to reduce runoff and decrease the risk of water erosion. . Strip Farming: In areas where a slope is particularly steep or there is no alternative method of preventing erosion, planting fields in long strips alternated in a crop rotation system (strip farming) has proven effective. . Terrace Farming: Many farmers have successfully combated erosion by planting in flat areas created on hillsides in a step-like formation (terrace farming). . Grass Waterways: By planting grass in areas of concentrated water flow, farmers can prevent much of the soil erosion that results from runoff, as the grass stabilizes the soil while still providing an outlet for drainage. . Diversion Structures: Used often for gully control, diversion structures cause water to flow along a desired path and away from areas at high risk for erosion. . Boundary tree planting: Trees planted in rows reduces the speed of

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wind. In addition it will increase vegetation cover contributing to the achievement of 10% tree cover. Significance Medium/Direct/Progressive/Reducible/avoidable impact Potential Impact 7 Degradation of Cultural and Recreation Sites Project Activities Settlement; Crop and Livestock Production; Logging; Charcoal Burning Environmental Receptor Land and Human beings Duration Long term Magnitude Medium Mitigation Measures . Protect and rehabilitee identified existing and proposed cultural sites . Document all cultural and recreation sites . Provide guides and signage to all cultural and recreation sites Significance Medium/Direct/Progressive/Reducible/avoidable impact Potential Impact 8, 9, Wildlife habitat and corridors degradation; Poaching; Wildlife 10, 11, 12 &13 migration; Human-Wildlife conflict; Crop Damage; Loss of Livestock; Human injury and loss of life Project Activities Settlement; Crop and Livestock Production; Logging; Charcoal Burning Environmental Receptor Land, Wildlife, crops, Livestock, Human Beings Duration Long term Magnitude Medium Mitigation Measures . The proposed boundary/cutline between the settlement scheme and forest, wildlife areas/corridors will discourage encroachment into the forest/wildlife areas and restrict movement across the boundary of human, livestock and wildlife to avoid human-wildlife, livestock- wildlife and crop-wildlife conflicts. This will also enable compensation for crop damage, livestock loss and loss of human life from wildlife especially elephants, monkeys, hyenas and baboons among others. . There is need for KWS to consider putting up an electric fence to restrict wildlife from entering the settlement scheme and causing havoc including crop damage, loss of livestock and human life. In addition, KWS to strengthen commitment on reducing poaching. . Restore destroyed vegetation in wildlife habitat areas and corridors . Promote community participation in conservation and management of wildlife and their habitats and corridors Significance Medium; Direct; Progressive (habitat); Occasional (Conflict); avoidable impact (Conflict) Potential Impact 14 & Reduced Rainfall and Climate Change 15 Project Activities Settlement; Crop and Livestock Production; Logging; Charcoal Burning Environmental Receptor Land, Water, Flora and Fauna (Terrestrial and Aquatic)

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Duration Long term Magnitude Medium Mitigation Measures . Establishing tree nurseries, planting trees, cover crops and tree crops. There is need for reforestation of degraded areas and implementing the 10% tree planting and vegetation cover policy. . Good crop and livestock husbandry including crop rotation, terracing, mulching, controlled use of agro-chemicals for weeding, pest control by using prescribed amounts of agro-chemicals and safe use. There is need for cultivation away from riparian zones and steep slopes. . Practise sustainable crop and livestock production by embracing Climate Smart Agriculture (CSA) within Mochongoi Settlement Scheme. . Soil and Water Conservation measures including construction of conservation dams, gabions among others. There is need to mainstream soil and water conservation in every agricultural activity in Mochongoi Settlement Scheme. . Controlling animal stocks to manageable stocks. There is need to practise intensive livestock production as opposed to the traditional livestock keeping (nomadism) trespassing every available land including the forest. . Safeguarding protected areas including water catchment, riparian zones, reserved forests, wetlands among others. There is need to reduce and or eliminate illegal logging and charcoal burning in the protected areas. . Increasing development and use of renewable energy where possible and applicable for instance solar energy in water supply and agro- processing and value addition e.g. drying process; heating among other processes and activities. . Community environment civil education for awareness and collective responsibility on conservation and sustainability. Significance Medium; Direct; Progressive; Cumulative; reducible; unavoidable impact Potential Impact 16 Forest Fires Project Activities Land clearing; Charcoal Burning and Smoking Environmental Receptor Land; Crop; Forest; Homesteads; Wildlife; Livestock; Human beings Duration Short term Magnitude Small Mitigation Measures . Encourage communities to assume control and ‗ownership‘ over fire management. . Adopt Community Based Forest Fire Management (CBFFM) that integrates fire and people into land-use and vegetation management systems. . The County Government, CFA and KFS to sensitize community on preventive measures to stop the start and spread of fires within the farms and forest. The measures include fire breaks on farms and forest cutline; responsible citizens/community members who do not

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drop burning cigarettes on grass land, bush land or forested areas. . County Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries (CMoALF) need to discourage farmers from farm clearing by burning. This is the major cause of forest/bush/grass fires that normally spread very fast consuming the entire region especially during the dry season. Significance Low, Direct, Occasional, Avoidable impact Potential Impact 17 Solid and Liquid waste Problems (Environment/Water Pollution) Project Activities Settlement; Commercial Centres; Crop and Livestock Production Environmental Receptor Land; Water; Wildlife; Livestock; Human Beings Duration Long term Magnitude Low Mitigation Measures . Agro-chemicals to be applied in quantities that are utilizable at the point of use. The County Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries (CMoALF) need to train farmers on safe use of agrochemicals at farm level. . The farmers need to practise good crop and livestock husbandry to minimize land degradation that triggers soil erosion, water pollution and siltation of water pans and dams. In addition there is need for rehabilitation of degraded catchment areas. . County government to facilitate waste handling and disposal from trading centres (Mochongoi, Kabel, Tuyotich, Kapkechir, Ngarie, Koimugul, Kokwenbei and Keneroi) in Block I; (Kamailel, Tulwopsoo, Kapkoros, Kong‘asis and Ng‘enyilel) in Block II; (Kimoriot, Kaburwo, Tendenbei, Kibagenge and Tuyobei) in Block III. Waste receptacles need to be placed at strategic points to discourage littering. The wastes should be segregated to encourage recycling where possible and applicable.appliances. Significance Low, Direct, Continuous, Cumulative, Avoidable impact. Potential Impact 18 Increased Water Demand Project Activities Settlement; Commercial Centres; Crop and Livestock Production Environmental Receptor Human Beings and Livestock Duration Long term Magnitude Small Mitigation Measures . There is need to maintain the ecological flow for downstream users and uses. . The community and public institutions to practise rain water harvesting including roof catchments, water pans, dams among others to enhance collection and storage of rain water for use during the dry season. . Community need to be sensitized on reducing wasting the water. Significance Medium, Direct, Progressive, adaptable impact,. Potential Impact 19 Increased Power Demand Project Activities Settlement (homesteads); Commercial Centres; Enterprises; Institutions Environmental Receptor Human being Duration Long term Magnitude Medium

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Mitigation Measures . The community to consider using renewable energy where possible and applicable for instance solar energy in water supply and agro- processing and value addition e.g. drying process; heating among other processes and activities. . All electrical appliances should be switched off when not in use. . Put off all lights when not in use. . Use a design that is environmentally sound to avoid use of electricity for air conditioning . Use energy conserving electric lamps for general lighting. . Utilize natural light inside buildings to avoid using electricity for lighting during the day. Significance Minor, direct, occasional, avoidable impact. Potential Impact 20 Insecurity from Neighbouring Communities: Cattle rustling Project Activities Settlement; Livestock Production Environmental Receptor Human Being; Livestock Duration Medium term Magnitude Medium Mitigation Measures . Increase security patrol . Deploy/Facilitate security scout/rangers . Promote community Policing . Promote intercommunity meetings . Establish water and pasture management committees . Mainstream pease building and conflict resolution . Establish Police post in Tuyotich and or equip the neighbouring police posts in preparedness for emergency response. Significance Medium, Direct, Occasional, Avoidable impact.

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CHAPTER NINE: INTEGRATED ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL MANAGEMENT PROGRAMME (IESMP) 9.1. Overview EMCA 1999 advocates for a clean and healthy environment everywhere any time for all citizens. This therefore calls upon developers/investors/settlers/famers to maintain the same as they undertake development activities. Maintenance of clean and good environment should not be one-time event but a continuous process. This section aims at identifying the activity, action(s) to be undertaken, the implementer, cost involved and the time frame when the action is due. Integrated Environment and Social Management Programme (IESMP) as it is normally known is more of evaluation and monitoring tool helping the proponent and the auditor to gauge compliance.

9.2. Desktop Preparation Phase This refers to the stage whereby all the documents and preliminaries pertaining to the proposed degazettement of Ol Arabel Forest for Mochongoi Settlement Scheme were being undertaken in various offices. Some of these activities have since been completed while others are ongoing.

Table 23: IESMP for Desktop Preparation Phase Activity Action required Responsibility Timeframe Cost (KShs)  Petition to the National MP Hon. Grace 23rd February In Kind (MP) Preliminary Assembly for degazettement of Kipchoim on behalf 2016, Ol Arabel Forest for Mochongoi of the people of Settlement Scheme and issuance Mochongoi of titles pursuant to Article 119 Settlement Scheme (1) of the Constitution of Kenya (2010) and Standing Order 219.  The National Assembly Report National Assembly 2nd March Cost borne by on the petition and Committee on Lands 2017 National recommendation for ESIA as a Assembly requirement for degazettement of Ol Arabel Forest for Mochongoi Settlement Scheme.  Development of Terms of  Department of Done In kind Reference (TOR) for IESIA Lands, Housing and (Proponent) study Urban Development (LHUD)  Stakeholders  Tendering, Selection of LHUD 7th October Mainstreamed Consultant for IESIA study and County Procurement 2019

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signing of contract  Submission of TOR for IESIA Consultant 11th October Part IESIA study to NEMA Head Quarters 2019 Cost  Approval of TOR for IESIA Consultant 16th October Free (NEMA) study by NEMA 2019  Launching of IESIA Study  LHUD 22nd Mainstreamed  County November Government 2019  Area MP  Area MCA  Stakeholders  Consultant  Local Administration (WA, ACC, Chiefs, Assistant Chiefs)  Wazee wa Mitaa  Community at large  Planning meeting for start of  Consultant 12th December Part of IESIA IESIA study  LHUD 2019 Cost  County Government  Area MP  Area MCA  Stakeholders  Local Administration (WA, ACC, Chiefs, Assistant Chiefs)  Wazee wa Mitaa  Community at large  IESIA study Report preparation Consultant January-June Part of IESIA (Field and Office Work) 2020 Cost  Presentation of IESIA Draft  Consultant 18TH Nov. Part of IESIA Report to stakeholders  Stakeholders 2020 Cost  Client  Presentation of IESIA Draft  Consultant 16-18 Dec. Report to communities in  Community 2020 Mochongoi Settlement Scheme  Client  Application for IESIA License Proponent March 2021 Part of IESIA from NEMA for degazettement Consultant Cost TOTAL >4,000,000.00

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9.3. Settlement Phase This is the critical phase of settlement scheme after degazettement. It is at this stage that the most of the environment impacts are taken into consideration.

Table 24: Integrated Environmental and Social Management Programme for the Settlement Phase Activity Action required Responsibility Time frame Cost (KShs) Reduction in . Encourage natural regeneration in degraded areas. . Farmers Immediately . In Kind Vegetation . Restoration of degraded areas within and outside the . CFA . Mainstreamed (Forest/Bush/Grass) farms. . County . Plant trees and grass in open areas and steep slopes Government at the farms and adjacent areas. . KFS . All farms to have woodlots covering 10% of the land (for 5acres = ½ acre; 2.5 acres = ¼ acre). . Strengthen Ol Arabel CFA to participate in afforestation activities . Empower and promote farmers to practise agro- commercial forestry in settled areas (10% of land to have tree cover)

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Catchment . The proposed interventions for the conservation of . Farmers Immediately . In Kind Degradation Mochongoi Settlement Scheme catchment include . CFA . Mainstreamed planting trees and grass strips on steep slopes, . County watersheds and reserved forest areas. Government . Riparian areas should be left in their natural . KFS state and strictly protected to provide a buffer for shielding water from pollution and other threats. . Degraded riparian areas should be rehabilitated by planting trees, shrubs or grass. Permitted activities should be recreation, research and education. . Area with springs should be strictly protected and no extractive activity should be allowed. Should ensure no livestock grazing in such areas to reduce pollution through fecal contamination. Degraded springs should be rehabilitated with indigenous local tree species with catchment values. . General catchment area should be protected and ensure natural vegetation is maintained or restored. . Encourage improvement of catchment value of agricultural land and conservation agriculture (CA).

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Loss of Biodiversity . Integrated Conservation Approach: Integrated . Farmers Immediately . In Kind conservation is a strategy aimed at emphasizing . CFA . Mainstreamed increased conservation efforts through on-farm (in-situ) . County intervention that cumulatively addresses the entire Government settlement scheme responsively and collectively. . KFS . Promote the sustainable utilization of biodiversity resources and products. This is aimed at neutralizing the overexploitation of biodiversity resources by controlling charcoal burning, overgrazing of pastures and limiting stock herds; adopting appropriate land use and agricultural practices by promoting efficient farming techniques such as Conservation Agriculture (CA) and Climate Smart Agriculture (CSA). . Promote awareness in biodiversity conservation. Community Forest Association, Kenya Forest Service and county government need to inform the public by providing adequate information through improved extension services and provide financial and material support to biodiversity interventions and solutions. . Promote and enhance the conservation of biodiversity through in-situ, preventive and restorative (curative) interventions. . Management of introduced species and regular surveillance of invasive alien species that threatens indigenous species. These include invasive weeds that threaten crop, pasture and eventually food security. . The community shall restore/rehabilitate cleared vegetation on steep slopes, water catchment, riparian zones, reserved forest and degraded areas for improved flora and fauna environment. . The people of Mochongoi Settlement Scheme shall practise good crop and livestock husbandry in order to minimize disturbance of the flora and fauna environment during crop and livestock production as well as other human activities. . The community needs to embrace voluntary162 tree planting in their farms as well other areas within the forest, catchment areas and riparian zones as their contribution towards environmental conservation and rehabilitation of degraded areas and improving the

Soil Erosion, . Crop Rotation: Rotating in high-residue crops can reduce . Farmers Immediately . In Kind Landscape erosion as the layer of residue protects topsoil from being . Ward . Mainstreamed Degradation and carried away by wind and water. Agricultural Siltation . Conservation Tillage: Conventional tillage produces a Extension smooth surface that leaves soil vulnerable to erosion. Services Conservation tillage methods such as no-till planting, strip rotary tillage, chiseling, and disking leave more of the field surface covered with crop residue that protects the soil from eroding forces. . Contour Farming: Planting in row patterns that run level around a hill instead of up and down the slope has been shown to reduce runoff and decrease the risk of water erosion. . Strip Farming: In areas where a slope is particularly steep or there is no alternative method of preventing erosion, planting fields in long strips alternated in a crop rotation system (strip farming) has proven effective. . Terrace Farming: Many farmers have successfully combated erosion by planting in flat areas created on hillsides in a step-like formation (terrace farming). . Grass Waterways: By planting grass in areas of concentrated water flow, farmers can prevent much of the soil erosion that results from runoff, as the grass stabilizes the soil while still providing an outlet for drainage. . Diversion Structures: Used often for gully control, diversion structures cause water to flow along a desired path and away from areas at high risk for erosion. . Boundary tree planting: Trees planted in rows reduces the speed of wind. In addition it will increase vegetation cover contributing to the achievement of 10% tree cover.

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Degradation of . Protect and rehabilitee identified existing and proposed . Farmers Immediately . In Kind Cultural and cultural sites . CFA . Mainstreamed Recreation Sites . Document all cultural and recreation sites . County . Provide guides and signage to all cultural and recreation Government sites . KFS Wildlife habitat and . The proposed boundary/cutline between the settlement . Farmers Immediately . In Kind corridors scheme and forest, wildlife areas/corridors will . KWS . Mainstreamed degradation; discourage encroachment into the forest/wildlife areas . CFA Poaching; Wildlife and restrict movement across the boundary of human, . County migration; Human- livestock and wildlife to avoid human-wildlife, Government Wildlife conflict; livestock-wildlife and crop-wildlife conflicts. This will . KFS Crop Damage; Loss also enable compensation for crop damage, livestock of Livestock; Human loss and loss of human life from wildlife especially injury and loss of elephants, monkeys, hyenas and baboons among others. life . There is need for KWS to consider putting up an electric fence to restrict wildlife from entering the settlement scheme and causing havoc including crop damage, loss of livestock and human life. In addition, KWS to strengthen commitment on reducing poaching. . Restore destroyed vegetation in wildlife habitat areas and corridors . Promote community participation in conservation and management of wildlife and their habitats and corridors

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Reduced Rainfall . Establishing tree nurseries, planting trees, cover crops and . Farmers Immediately . In Kind and Climate Change tree crops. There is need for reforestation of degraded . Ward . Mainstreamed areas and implementing the 10% tree planting and Agricultural vegetation cover policy. Extension . Good crop and livestock husbandry including crop Services rotation, terracing, mulching, controlled use of agro- . CFA chemicals for weeding, pest control by using prescribed . County amounts of agro-chemicals and safe use. There is need for Government cultivation away from riparian zones and steep slopes. . KFS . Practise sustainable crop and livestock production by embracing Climate Smart Agriculture (CSA) within Mochongoi Settlement Scheme. . Soil and Water Conservation measures including construction of conservation dams, gabions among others. There is need to mainstream soil and water conservation in every agricultural activity in Mochongoi Settlement Scheme. . Controlling animal stocks to manageable stocks. There is need to practise intensive livestock production as opposed to the traditional livestock keeping (nomadism) trespassing every available land including the forest. . Safeguarding protected areas including water catchment, riparian zones, reserved forests, wetlands among others. There is need to reduce and or eliminate illegal logging and charcoal burning in the protected areas. . Increasing development and use of renewable energy where possible and applicable for instance solar energy in water supply and agro-processing and value addition e.g. drying process; heating among other processes and activities. . Community environment civil education for awareness and collective responsibility on conservation and sustainability.

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Forest Fires . Encourage communities to assume control and . Farmers Immediately . In Kind ‗ownership‘ over fire management. . Ward . Mainstreamed . Adopt Community Based Forest Fire Management Agricultural (CBFFM) that integrates fire and people into land-use and Extension vegetation management systems. Services . The County Government, CFA and KFS to sensitize . CMoALF community on preventive measures to stop the start and . CFA spread of fires within the farms and forest. The measures . KFS include fire breaks on farms and forest cutline; . County Fire responsible citizens/community members who do not drop Response burning cigarettes on grass land, bush land or forested Department areas. . County Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries (CMoALF) need to discourage farmers from farm clearing by burning. This is the major cause of forest/bush/grass fires that normally spread very fast consuming the entire region especially during the dry season.

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Solid and Liquid . Agro-chemicals to be applied in quantities that are . Farmers Immediately . In Kind waste Problems utilizable at the point of use. The County Ministry of . Ward . Mainstreamed (Environment/Water Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries (CMoALF) need to Agricultural Pollution) train farmers on safe use of agrochemicals at farm level. Extension . The farmers need to practise good crop and livestock Services husbandry to minimize land degradation that triggers soil . CMoALF erosion, water pollution and siltation of water pans and . CFA dams. In addition there is need for rehabilitation of . KFS degraded catchment areas. . County Waste . County government to facilitate waste handling and Management disposal from trading centres (Mochongoi, Kabel, Department Tuyotich, Kapkechir, Ngarie, Koimugul, Kokwenbei and Keneroi) in Block I; (Kamailel, Tulwopsoo, Kapkoros, Kong‘asis and Ng‘enyilel) in Block II; (Kimoriot, Kaburwo, Tendenbei, Kibagenge and Tuyobei) in Block III. Waste receptacles need to be placed at strategic points to discourage littering. The wastes should be segregated to encourage recycling where possible and applicable. Increased Water . There is need to maintain the ecological flow for . Farmers Immediately . In Kind Demand and Water downstream users and uses. . WRUA . Mainstreamed shortage Problems . The community and public institutions to practise rain . WRA water harvesting including roof catchments, water pans, . CFA dams among others to enhance collection and storage of . KFS rain water for use during the dry season. . KWS . Community need to be sensitized on reducing wasting the water.

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Increased Power . The community to consider using renewable energy . Farmers Immediately . In Kind Demand and Power where possible and applicable for instance solar energy . KP . Mainstreamed Accessibility in water supply and agro-processing and value addition . County Challenges e.g. drying process; heating among other processes and Government activities. . All electrical appliances should be switched off when not in use. . Put off all lights when not in use. . Use a design that is environmentally sound to avoid use of electricity for air conditioning . Use energy conserving electric lamps for general lighting. . Utilize natural light inside buildings to avoid using electricity for lighting during the day. Insecurity from . Increase security patrol . County Immediately . In Kind Neighbouring . Deploy/Facilitate security scout/rangers Government . Mainstreamed Communities: . Promote community Policing . National Cattle rustling . Promote intercommunity meetings Government . Establish water and pasture management committees . Mainstream pease building and conflict resolution . Establish Police post in Tuyotich and or equip the neighbouring police posts in preparedness for emergency response. Total Project Cost

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CHAPTER TEN: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 10.1. Conclusion In any development initiative, the focus is to improve the economic well-being of an area in terms of increased land use rate, increased cash flow and levies to County Governments. In the same line these development should always consider the environmental well-being of the current population and the generation to come and thus a balance is attained between the two hence termed as sustainable development. EMCA (Amendment), 2015 advocates for a clean and healthy environment in everywhere any time for all citizens. This therefore calls upon developers/investors/settlers/famers to maintain the same as they undertake development activities. Maintenance of clean and good environment should not be one-time event but a continuous process.

1. Mochongoi Settlement Scheme is located in Ol Arabel Forest in Mochongoi Ward, Baringo South Sub County, Baringo County. 2. The scheme was established in the year 1989 by Presidential Directive to resettle people displaced from their lands to create space for government projects including Kirandich dam, schools, churches, the airstrip and the Government Training Institute (GTI). 3. The people have settled in Mochongoi Settlement Scheme and practiced crop and livestock production and other activities. 4. Mochongoi settlement scheme has been surveyed and consists of 5672 parcels of land in 37 Maps (―RIMs‖) covering a total acreage of 10,056.36 hectares (Ha). Out of these, 1409 have title deeds, 2426 have allotment letters and 3246 do not have allotment letters. Some of the land owners have paid SFT funds. 5. The National and County Government have invested in the settlement scheme including administrative boundaries comprising Two (2) Locations (Kimoriot and Mochongoi) and Five (5) Sub Locations (Kimoriot, Kamailel, Mochongoi, Kapkechir and Kapnarok); many public utilities such as primary schools, secondary schools, health facilities, water projects, infrastructure (roads, electricity) among others as detailed in section 5.4 in this report. 6. Mochongoi settlement scheme land cover at the time of study consisted of 15.3% tree cover; 4.7% Shrub cover; 8.7% grass land; 71% crop land; 0.2% bare areas and 0.1% built areas. Combining tree and shrub covers gives a total of 20% vegetation cover. This is above the 10% vegetation cover recommended under the Constitution of Kenya 2010 and Forest Conservation and Management Act No 34 of 2016.

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7. Due to lack of clear boundary/cutline between the forest and the settlement scheme, there has been encroachment beyond into community reserve forest, catchment and riparian areas. 8. There are three alternatives (available options) for Mochongoi settlement scheme: (a) degazettement; (b) relocation and (c) status quo (No alternative). The comparison of alternatives established the practicable environmental alternative option for Mochongoi Settlement Scheme. The Degazettement Alternative (Option) is the Practical Option. d) Degazettement Alternative (Option): This alternative implies that the petition succeeds and the land continues to be used as agricultural land and settlement. The people of Mochongoi Settlement Scheme will enjoy the fruits of the land ownership as detailed in section 6.2. This will pave way for issuance of title deeds. Kenya Forest Service (KFS) and Community Forest Association (CFA) will be able to manage the remaining section of the forest. In addition, KWS will be able to manage the wildlife and contain within the forested areas and corridors reducing human-wildlife conflict. It will also create harmony and good neighbourliness as envisaged in Participatory Forest Management. This alternative implies degazettement of approximately 10,056.36 hectares (Ha) of forest land to agricultural land, providing a long term solution to land ownership issues and community partnership on conservation of Ol Arabel Forest. However, there are several negative impacts as indicated in section 6.3. Mitigation measures have been proposed and shall be used by the proponent (people of Mochongoi Settlement Scheme) to address these adverse effects. e) Relocating Alternative (Option): This scenario envisages the decision that community has occupied the land illegally and has no ownership rights. Under such circ*mstances there are two approaches: the humane resettlement and forceful eviction. The humane resettlement will involve identification of alternative land and resettling the people there. Although this alternative may be the best bargain for conservation of the forest, however the cost would be very high. Relocation means that the Government has to look for another land for resettlement of all the people in Mochongoi settlement scheme. Looking for the land to accommodate 5672 Households (Homesteads) and completing the transfer of land ownership or lease agreement may take a long period although there is no guarantee that the land would be available. At present the County and National Government does not have an alternative land. The forceful eviction will result in resistance and bad blood. The long term impact if this approach is negative as there

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will be no sustainability of programmes where community support is weak. Cases of arsons are likely to be regularly and cost of restoration could be very high. f) The No Action Alternative (Option): The no action alternative occurs when it is difficult to take any of the above alternatives. Under this alternative, the status quo remains. The settlement scheme will remain as it is currently. Community living in the settlement will not be able to invest on the land and might result to more land degradation due to uncertainty and unwillingness to invest in areas you are not sure of status of tomorrow. This is not the best option as it will encourage further encroachment since there is no clear boundary/cutline between the settlement scheme and the forest. 9. There is no significant threat (risk) to the proposed degazettement of Ol Arabel Forest for Mochongoi Settlement Scheme however; all current and emergent environmental issues shall be responded immediately and as they arise. 10. The people of Mochongoi Settlement Scheme were willing and able to address the mitigation measures to negative impacts as well as emergent environmental issues given in this report.

10.2. Community Concerns on Reserve Land The people of Mochongoi Settlement Scheme particularly block I were concerned about the Community Land that was originally reserve land before the gazettement of Ol Arabel Forest. The community informed that the boundary between Ol Arabel Forest and Reserve Land starts from Akwangayan-Koitilil-Lopolos-Soke-Keneroi-Kapkamundu (Mbogoine). The community claimed that Kapkechir and Lomoiwe in Kapkechir Sublocation and Lopolos in Mochongoi sub location falls within community land originally Reserve Land and therefore is neither part Ol Arabel Forest nor Mochongoi settlement scheme.

10.3. Recommendation 1. The people of Mochongoi Settlement Scheme to ensure adherence to the mitigation measures for potential negative impacts stated in chapter Seven, Eight and the Integrated Environmental and Social Management Programme (IESMP).

2. The community (land owners) to take adequate measures to conserve and protect the reserved forest, catchment areas, riparian areas and other protected areas [MANDATORY].

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3. County Government, CFA, KFS, WRA, KWS and other stakeholders to assist and enforce where necessary/applicable/practicable the implementation of the conservation of protected areas. 4. The community (land owners) to practise good crop and livestock husbandry for soil and water conservation. County Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries (CMoALF) through Ward Agricultural Extension Services to assist and enforce the implementation of soil and water conservation in Mochongoi Settlement Scheme.

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ANNEX A: ANNEXES/APPENDICES ANNEX A1: APPROVAL OF TOR BY NEMA FOR IESIA STUDY

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ANNEX A2: LAUNCHING (NOTICE; BANNER AND MEETING)

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ANNEX A3: PUBLIC BARAZA/STAKEHOLDERS; NOTICES; INVITATIONS AND PROGRAMMES

PUBLIC BARAZA NOTICE (BLOCK I, II &III)

DEPARTMENT OF LAND, HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (LHUD), BARINGO COUNTY HAS CONTRACTED LEAD SECURITIES LTD TO CONDUCT INTEGRATED ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (IESIA) STUDY FOR DEGAZETTEMENT OF OL ARABEL FOREST FOR MOCHONGOI SETTLEMENT SCHEME IN MOCHONGOI WARD, BARINGO SOUTH SUB COUNTY, BARINGO COUNTY.

THE ABOVE WAS LAUNCHED ON 22ND NOVEMBER 2019 AT KABEL BY H.E. STANELY KIPTIS THE GOVERNOR BARINGO COUNTY.

THE CONSULTANT WILL BE HOLDING PUBLIC BARAZAS FOR THE ABOVE EXERCISE AS FOLLOWS:

BLOCK I: THURSDAY 19TH DECEMBER 2019 STARTING 10:00AM

BLOCK II: FRIDAY 20TH DECEMBER 2019 STARTING 10:00AM

BLOCK III: SATURDAY 21ST DECEMBER 2019 STARTING 10:00AM

YOU ARE ALL WELCOMED

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PROGRAMME FOR PUBLIC BARAZA BLOCK II PUBLIC PARTICIPATION/BARAZA FOR INTEGRATED ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (IESIA) STUDY FOR DEGAZETTEMENT OF OL ARABEL FOREST FOR MOCHONGOI SETTLEMENT SCHEME TO BE HELD AT KONGASIS IN BLOCK II ON FRIDAY 20TH DECEMBER 2019 STARTING AT 10:00AM Date Time Activity Session Chair/ in charge/ Moderator 10:00-10:30AM Registration of Youth Kamailel participants 20/12/2019 10:30-11:00AM Opening remarks by Chief Kimoriot leaders Location assisted by Assistant Chief Kamailel sub location 11:00-11:30AM IESIA Brief, IESIA Team community sensitization, progress and way forward 11:30-1:30PM Community IESIA Team participation (open discussion, question and answers) 1:30-3:30PM Administration of IESIA Team questionnaires

3:30-4:00PM Closing Remarks Chief Kimoriot Location assisted by Assistant Chief Kamailel sub location NOTE: Community Members from Block II and stakeholders are all invited

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PROGRAMME FOR PUBLIC BARAZA BLOCK III PUBLIC PARTICIPATION/BARAZA FOR INTEGRATED ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (IESIA) STUDY FOR DEGAZETTEMENT OF OL ARABEL FOREST FOR MOCHONGOI SETTLEMENT SCHEME TO BE HELD AT KIMORIOT IN BLOCK III ON SATURDAY 21TH DECEMBER 2019 ATARTING AT 10:00AM Date Time Activity Session Chair/ in charge/ Moderator 10:00-10:30AM Registration of Youth Kimoriot participants 21/12/2019 10:30-11:00AM Opening remarks by Chief Kimoriot leaders Location assisted by Assistant Chief Kimoriot sub location 11:00-11:30AM IESIA Brief, IESIA Team community sensitization, progress and way forward 11:30-1:30PM Community IESIA Team participation (open discussion, question and answers) 1:30-3:30PM Administration of IESIA Team questionnaires

3:30-4:00PM Closing Remarks Chief Kimoriot Location assisted by Assistant Chief Kimoriot sub location NOTE: Community Members from Block III and stakeholders are all invited

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PUBLIC BARAZA NOTICE (BLOCK I)

DEPARTMENT OF LAND, HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (LHUD), BARINGO COUNTY HAS CONTRACTED LEAD SECURITIES LTD TO CONDUCT INTEGRATED ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (IESIA) STUDY FOR DEGAZETTEMENT OF OL ARABEL FOREST FOR MOCHONGOI SETTLEMENT SCHEME IN MOCHONGOI WARD, BARINGO SOUTH SUB COUNTY, BARINGO COUNTY.

THE ABOVE WAS LAUNCHED ON 22ND NOVEMBER 2019 AT KABEL BY H.E. STANELY KIPTIS THE GOVERNOR BARINGO COUNTY.

THE CONSULTANT WILL BE HOLDING PUBLIC BARAZA FOR BLOCK I (MOCHONGOI LOCATION) AT KABEL TRADING CENTRE ON SATURDAY 04TH JANUARY 2020 STARTING 10:00AM

THE PUBLIC BARAZA THAT WAS TO BE HELD 19TH DECEMBER 2019 WAS POSTPONED TO 4TH JANUARY 2020

YOU ARE ALL WELCOMED

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PROGRAMME FOR PUBLIC BARAZA BLOCK I PUBLIC PARTICIPATION/BARAZA FOR INTEGRATED ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (IESIA) STUDY FOR DEGAZETTEMENT OF OL ARABEL FOREST FOR MOCHONGOI SETTLEMENT SCHEME TO BE HELD AT KABEL TRADING CENTRE IN BLOCK I ON SATURDAY 4TH JANUARY 2020 STARTING AT 10:00AM

Date Time Activity Session Chair/ in charge/ Moderator 10:00-10:30AM Registration of Youth Kabel participants 04/01/2020 10:30-11:00AM Opening remarks by Chief Mochongoi leaders Location assisted by Assistant Chiefs Kapnarok, Mochongoi and Kapkechir sub locations 11:00-11:30AM IESIA Brief, IESIA Team community sensitization, progress and way forward 11:30-1:30PM Community IESIA Team participation (open discussion, question and answers) 1:30-3:30PM Administration of IESIA Team questionnaires

3:30-4:00PM Closing Remarks Chief Mochongoi Location assisted by Assistant Chiefs Kapnarok, Mochongoi and Kapkechir sub locations NOTE: Community Members from Block I and stakeholders are all invited

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Sample Invitation Letters for Presentation of Draft ESIA Study Report to Stakeholders

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PROGRAMME FOR PRESENTATION OF REPORT TO STAKEHOLDERS

PRESENTATION OF DRAFT ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT STUDY FOR DEGAZETTEMENT OF OL-ARABEL FOREST FOR MOCHONGOI SETTLEMENT SCHEME IN MOCHONGOI WARD; BARINGO SOUTH SUB COUNTY; BARINGO COUNTY VENUE: KENYA SCHOOL OF GOVERNMENT (KSG)-KABARNET DATE: 18TH NOVEMBER 2020 TIME:9:00AM Time Topic Facilitator SESSION ONE 9.00 - 9.30 am Registration Secretariat 9.30 - 9.40 am Introductions ALL 9.40 am - 9.50 am Opening remarks 1. CO-MoLHUD 2. CEC-MoLHUD 3. Chairman-Lands Committee 4. Kipruto Kimosop (MCA-Mochongoi Ward) 5. Charles Kamuren (MP-Baringo South Constituency) 6. H.E. Stanely Kiptis (The Governor; Baringo County) 9.50 -10.10 am Tea/Health Break Secretariat/Hotel SESSION TWO 10.10 am-11:00 am Presentation of the Draft Environment and Social Lead Securities Ltd Impact Assessment (ESIA) Study Report for (Eng. Amos Kiptanui) Degazettement of Ol Arabel Forest for Mochongoi Settlement Scheme in Mochongoi Ward, Baringo South Sub County, Baringo County. 11.00am– 11.30 am Presentation of Public Utilities in Mochongoi Lead Securities Ltd Settlement Scheme (Esther Maina) 11:30am-11:45am Presentation of Maps of Mochongoi Settlement Lead Securities Ltd Scheme (Duncan Kebut) 11:45am-12:00pm Conclusion and Recommendation on ESIA study for Lead Securities Ltd Degazettement of Ol Arabel Forest for Mochongoi (Eng. Amos Kiptanui) Settlement Scheme SESSION THREE 12:00pm-1:00pm Plenary (Questions, answers, Opinions, Comments,  Lead Securities Ltd suggestions, recommendation)  Department of LHUD 1:00pm-1:30pm Way Forward  Lead Securities Ltd  Department of LHUD 1:30pm-1:45pm Closing Remarks Deputy Governor (Baringo Governor) 1:45pm-2:15pm Lunch Break and Participants leave at their Secretariat/Hotel convenience

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REPUBLIC OF KENYA

BARINGO COUNTY GOVERNMENT

OFFICE OF THE CHIEF OFFICER DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT P.O BOX 53, KABARNET EMAIL: [emailprotected]

BCG/CO/LHUD/MOCHO/VOL.I/39 DATE: 10TH DEC, 2020 PUBLIC BARAZA NOTICE (BLOCK I, II &III) DEPARTMENT OF LAND, HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (LHUD), BARINGO COUNTY CONTRACTED LEAD SECURITIES LTD TO CONDUCT INTEGRATED ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (IESIA) STUDY FOR DEGAZETTEMENT OF OL ARABEL FOREST FOR MOCHONGOI SETTLEMENT SCHEME IN MOCHONGOI WARD, BARINGO SOUTH SUB COUNTY, BARINGO COUNTY.

THE CONSULTANT WILL BE PRESENTING THE DRAFT REPORT TO THE PUBLIC (COMMUNITY) AS FOLLOWS:

BLOCK III: WEDNESDAY 16TH DECEMBER 2020 AT KIMORIOT TRADING CENTRE STARTING 10:00AM

BLOCK II: THURSDAY 17TH DECEMBER 2020 AT KONG‘ASIS TRADING CENTRE STARTING 10:00AM

BLOCK I: FRIDAY 18TH DECEMBER 2020 AT KABEL STAGE STARTING 10:00AM

YOU ARE ALL WELCOMED

CATHERINE CHANGWONY CHIEF OFFICER, LANDS, HOUSING & URBAN DEVELOPMENT

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PROGRAMME FOR PRESENTATION OF DRAFT REPORT TO COMMUNITY

PRESENTATION OF DRAFT ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT STUDY FOR DEGAZETTEMENT OF OL-ARABEL FOREST FOR MOCHONGOI SETTLEMENT SCHEME IN MOCHONGOI WARD; BARINGO SOUTH SUB COUNTY; BARINGO COUNTY VENUE: MOCHNGOI SETTLEMENT SCHEME (KIMORIOT; KAMAILEL AND MOCHONGOI) DATE: 16TH - 18TH DECEMBER 2020 TIME:10:00AM TIME TOPIC FACILITATOR SESSION ONE 10.00 - 10.30 am Registration Secretariat 10.30 - 10.40 am Introductions ALL 10.40am - 11.00am Opening remarks Leaders Present SESSION TWO 11.10 am-12:00 am Presentation of the Draft Environment and Lead Securities Ltd Social Impact Assessment (ESIA) Study Report (Eng. Amos Kiptanui) for Degazettement of Ol Arabel Forest for Mochongoi Settlement Scheme in Mochongoi Ward, Baringo South Sub County, Baringo County. 12.00am– 12.30 am Presentation of Public Utilities in Mochongoi Lead Securities Ltd Settlement Scheme (Esther Maina) 12:30am-12:45am Presentation of Maps of Mochongoi Settlement Lead Securities Ltd Scheme (Duncan Kebut) 12:45am-1:00pm Conclusion and Recommendation on ESIA Lead Securities Ltd study for Degazettement of Ol Arabel Forest (Eng. Amos Kiptanui) for Mochongoi Settlement Scheme SESSION THREE 1:00pm-2:00pm Plenary (Questions, answers, Opinions,  Lead Securities Ltd Comments, suggestions, recommendation)  Department of LHUD 2:00pm-2:30pm Way Forward  Lead Securities Ltd  Department of LHUD 2:30pm-2:45pm Closing Remarks Leaders Present 2:45pm-3:00pm Participants leave at their convenience Secretariat

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ANNEX A4: MINUTES A4 (a): Planning Meeting

PLANNING MEETING MINUTES OF A MEETING FOR INTEGRATED ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (IESIA) STUDY FOR DEGAZETTEMENT OF OL ARABEL FOREST FOR MOCHONGOI SETTLEMENT SCHEME WITH OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT COUNTY COMMISSIONER, CHIEF’S, ASSISTANT CHIEFS, MCA AND IESIA TEAM HELD AT KIMORIOT SECONDARY SCHOOL ON THURSDAY 12TH DECEMBER, 2019 AT 7:00PM

Present List of Participants attached. Agenda 1. Preliminary (meeting): Introduction. 2. Planning for IESIA for proposed Degazettement of Ol Arabel Forest for Mochongoi Settlement Scheme 3. A.O.B.

Min. 1/12/12/19: Preliminary (meeting): Introduction. The area MCA; Hon Kipruto Kimosop introduced the IESIA team and briefed on the purpose of the meeting. Min. 2/12/12/19: Planning for IESIA for proposed Degazettement of Ol Arabel Forest for Mochongoi Settlement Scheme. The Area MCA (Mr. Kipruto Kimosop) informed that the ESIA process will engage the office of the ACC, Chiefs and Assistant Chiefs Offices and the public through barazas. He further informed that there are three blocks I (Mochongoi), II (Kamailel) & III (Kimoriot). He acknowledged the presence of other key people present: Retired Councillor; David Kendagor, Rev. Rotich Kendagor (F.G.C.K) and Paul Nguluba (Opinion Leader). He informed that the constitution of Kenya 2010 protects county boundaries and that the supreme law supersedes other laws and that any inconsistency shall be null and void. He informed that Mochongoi Settlement Scheme is in Ol- Arabel and NOT Marmanet and that the two are administered separately. Ol Arabel is in Baringo County (administratively and physically) and Marmanet is in 187

Laikipia (administratively and physically). He welcomed the ACC; Mary Mburu thanked the team and welcomed them for the task in the area and promised that all the offices represented in the meeting will assist the IESIA team in the process.

The Assistant County Commissioner (ACC) Mary Mburu informed that the chiefs and assistant chiefs are representatives of the residents in their areas of jurisdiction. She tasked the Chiefs and Assistant Chiefs to assist the IESIA team during field work and public barazas. She requested the Chiefs and Assistant Chiefs to involve the Wazee wa Mitaa, community elders and opinion leaders during public participation.

IESIA Team informed about the IESIA process. First delineation of boundary/cutline that involves walking and using GIS based techniques and systems to mark the boundary/cutline; Inventory of public utilities; holding public barazas for every block to discuss the boundary, public utilities among other issues/concerns for IESIA. The people to be involved included: Chiefs, Assistant Chiefs, Wazee wa Mitaa, community elders and opinion leaders. The exercise needed to be complete before holding public barazas for respective Block.

It was agreed that the work/exercise start on 13th December 2019 at Block III, then to Block II and finally Block III. The activity plan was developed and the people involved were notified by the chiefs, Assistant chiefs and Wazee wa Mitaa. Every Chief and Assistant chief was given postas for notices across the entire settlement scheme and neighbourhood.

Min. 3/12/12/19: AOB There being no other business to discuss the meeting was adjourned at 8:00pm.

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A4 (b): Public Baraza (Block II)

PUBLIC BARAZA (BLOCK II) PUBLIC BARAZA MINUTES FOR INTEGRATED ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (IESIA) STUDY FOR MOCHONGOI SETTLEMENT SCHEME FOR BLOCK II HELD AROUND CHIEF’S CAMP ON FRIDAY 20TH DECEMBER, 2019 AT 10:00AM

Present List of Participants attached. Agenda 1. Preliminary (meeting): Introduction. 2. Community awareness and sensitization on ESIA for the proposed Degazettement of Ol Arabel Forest for Mochongoi Settlement Scheme 3. Community participation (open discussion, question and answers) 4. A.O.B.

Min. 1/20/12/19: Preliminary (meeting): Introduction. The meeting was opened with a word of prayer from Stephen Chebon at 10:00am. The Assistant Chief Kamailel Sub-Location, Mr. Wendot welcomed the participants and introduced wazee wa mtaa, project chairpersons and professionals in the area present. He then welcomed the IESIA team.

Min. 2/20/12/19: Community awareness and sensitization on ESIA for the proposed Degazettement of Ol Arabel Forest for Mochongoi Settlement Scheme. The IESIA team informed the meeting that the focus on any development initiative, was to improve the economic well-being of an area. In the same line these development should always consider the environmental well-being of the current population and the generation to come and thus a balance is attained between the two hence termed as sustainable development. The participants were enlightened about the IESIA; its purpose/objectives; legal framework including legislation and policies governing environment; the rights and role of community towards environment protection and management. They were informed that in Kenya, it is a requirement that every project/activity has to be environmentally friendly. Section 58 of 190

Environmental Management and Coordination (Amendment) Act (EMCA), 2015 and Regulation 4 of Environmental Management and Coordination (Strategic Assessment, Integrated Impact Assessment and Audit) Regulations, 2018, indicates that no proponent shall implement a project that is likely to have a negative environmental impact; or for which an environmental impact assessment is required under the Act or these Regulations; unless an environmental impact assessment has been concluded and approved in accordance with these Regulations. Section 14 (1) of the regulations, an Integrated Environmental Impact Assessment study shall be conducted for all high-risk projects tabulated in the Second Schedule of the NEMA Act. In recognition of the above affirmative action by National Environment Management Authority (NEMA); IESIA study is conducted to assess anticipated impacts of the proposed development on its immediate neighbourhood, the natural environment, the socio-economic environment, the public health and safety in general. This therefore calls upon every person in Mochongoi to maintain the same as they undertake development activities. Maintenance of clean and good environment should not be one-time event but a continuous process throughout the project cycle. They were further informed that EMCA (Amendment) 2015 schedule II requires that IESIA study be conducted for the proposed degazettement of Ol Arabel Forest for Mochongoi Settlement Scheme and that community/ neighbours/ stakeholders must be involved while preparing the IESIA report and that it was mandatory to hold at least one baraza to give the community/ neighbours/stakeholders an opportunity to give their views with respect to the benefits; impacts both negative and positive in order to establish whether the project is economically viable, socially acceptable and environmentally friendly/sound.

Min. 3/20/12/19: Community participation (open discussion, question and answers)

1. Willy Kangor (Kapkoros) Area resident for 18 years He requested for the title deeds because:  It enable establishment of permanent buildings/homestead.  Help acquire loans for school fees and development. He informed that the community had agreed for 10% of their farm to be under tree cover for firewood and building materials.

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He informed that the community has been sensitized on 10% forest cover and those who have not planted need to.

Negative impacts highlighted:  Encroachment into waterways. Mitigation measures:  Enforce riparian zone laws and plant trees.

2. Richard Chesang (Retired Chief) Area resident for over 25 years (1994) Benefits of the title deeds:  Personal and community development.  Farm development and improved economic growth and development.  Guaranteed access to loans for development and other needs. He informed that when people own land, they will be responsible to practice soil, water and environmental conservation. He requested the KFS to avail tree species in nurseries for accessibility for purposes of tree planting. Negative Impacts:  Reduced forest cover and encroachment into rivers/streams.  Soil erosion.  Reduced medicinal tree species. Mitigation Measures:  Plant trees along waterways.  Community practice environmental conservation.

3. Assistant Chief He informed that when title deeds are issued the cutline/degazettement will demarcate the forest and the settlement scheme. He informed that he has issued permits for deaths and there was need to identification of cemeteries as public utilities.

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4. Samuel Kiplagat Kapet Area resident for 25 years Benefits of the title deeds:  They will act as collateral for loans.  Encourage permanent housing.  Encourage agroforestry.  Trees are homesteads for birds and wildlife.  Air purification.  Trees are an investment for income generation. Negative impacts:  Encourage deforestation.  Reduced rainfall.  Human-wildlife conflicts.  Inter-boundary conflicts.  Water conflicts Mitigation measures:  Rehabilitation of ecosystems for nature balance.  Plant trees along waterways and riparian zones.

5. Anthony Cheboi (Sokonin Village) Area resident for 25 years He informed that the coldness and elephants scared people away during initial settlement. He informed that the community needs the titles for loans for development purposes. He informed that NHIF cover is low and title deeds enables treatment in hospitals for medication.

6. Johnson K. Ndarawit (Tulwopsoo Village) He shifted to Tulwopsoo (1994) from Kapkechir (1981) The degazettement will:

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 Enable issuance of title deeds which will act as collateral for acquisition of loans from financial institutions for development.  Enable transactions of land when need be.  Encourage economic growth and development.  Ensure boundary between settlement and forest land is clear/free of ambiguity to reduce human-wildlife conflict. He thanked the County government for the construction of 4 water tanks and water supply (Kong’asis, Chemariach, Tulwopsoo, Kapchorwa/ Ng’enyilel). The forest has over 10,000 tree species including rare endangered species; mormorwo/saddle tree. 7. Mark Chebon (Ng’enyilel Village) Area resident for 22 years He thanked the government for the settlement efforts. He informed that it will enable land use planning; crop, livestock and homestead.

8. Samuel Chelimo Area resident since 1968 He thanked the government for efforts towards Mochongoi settlement. In 1930 people inhabited Lomoiwe, Keneroi, Kimoriot, Kaptorokwo dams, Ngarie. There were initially livestock keepers under the authority of colonial era. They had weapons in case of hostility of wildlife and cattle rustling. In 1968 Nyimbei people came to the D.O‘s office area until recently when their houses were burned. The Area residents of Mochongoi are hesitant to do developments. The issuance of title deeds will encourage economic growth and development, cash crop growing e.g. macadamia. He informed that when the boundary between the forest and the settlement is outlined, human- wildlife conflict will reduce hence crop damage and compensation will be done in case of occurrences.

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9. Miriam Malok (Kabon Tabutany Malok) She informed that her Land number is 901 in Kamailel. She informed that he came from Kapkechir location to Mochongoi in June 1995. She informed that when he came there was little development due to elephants and buffaloes conflict and that Kimoriot was their refuge. She explained about the hardship undergone by the Area residents including loss of life, damage to crops etc. She informed that the former D.O Mr. Etiang gave them land and encouraged then that the people and wildlife will live side by side.

10. Richard Kipkures (Kaplamai Village) Area resident for 25 years He requested the government to catalyze endeavors in issuance of title deeds. He pointed out that when there‘s crop damage compensation should be guaranteed

11. Kipsoi Stephen Chebon He informed that the government gave land to the people. He informed that since then he has experienced improved livelihoods due to increased crop yields. He informed that the community has coexisted with wildlife and they will continue to do so. He informed that the settlement scheme is a cosmopolitan area. The title deeds will encourage community development. They will also encourage environmental conservation. He encouraged the people to have 10% vegetation (5acres=0.5 acre forest cover) and (2.5acres=0.25 acre forest cover)

12. Cheboi Chelagat (Chemariach Village) He thanked the IESIA team for community sensitization and the way the IESIA process was being conducted. He informed that the Pokot took away all their livestock in 1994 and killed their chief. He has 2.5 acres of land in Chemariach village. 195

He informed that crop and livestock production is good. He supports the issuance of the title deeds.

13. Mark Chepsergon (Kapkoros Village) He thanked the IESIA team; the assistant chief and the wazee wa mtaa. He encouraged the community to pray for good progress of the process. He informed that the area MCA is aware and supports the deliberations of the meeting/baraza He encouraged the community of block II to speak with one voice.

14. Samuel Chelimo Area resident since 1946 He informed that the forest office, government is all aware of the settlement

Min. 4/20/12/19: AOB There being no other business the meeting closed with a word of prayer from Samuel Chelimo at 4:30pm

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A4 (c): Public Baraza (Block III)

PUBLIC BARAZA (BLOCK III) PUBLIC BARAZA MINUTES FOR INTEGRATED ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (IESIA) STUDY FOR MOCHONGOI SETTLEMENT SCHEME FOR BLOCK III HELD AT KIMORIOT ON SATURDAY 21ST DECEMBER, 2019 AT 12:00PM

Present List of Participants attached. Agenda 1. Preliminary (meeting): Introduction. 2. Community awareness and sensitization on ESIA for the proposed Degazettement of Ol Arabel Forest for Mochongoi Settlement Scheme 3. Community participation (open discussion, question and answers) 4. A.O.B.

Min. 1/21/12/19: Preliminary (meeting): Introduction. The meeting was opened with a word of prayer from Joshua Kendagor at 12:00pm. The Assistant Chief Kimoriot Sub-location; Mr. Nelson Chepchieng welcomed the participants and requested the community to be patient, thanked them for attending the meeting despite their busy schedules in their farms and other functions. The Senior Chief Mr. Soi informed the meeting that the meeting is specifically for IESIA and encouraged the community to participate fully during the baraza. He informed that the IESIA team had been in Kimoriot since 12/12/2019 The ESIA team enlightened the community on ESIA Brief, community sensitization, progress and way forward.

Min. 2/21/12/19: Community awareness and sensitization on ESIA for the proposed Degazettement of Ol Arabel Forest for Mochongoi Settlement Scheme. The IESIA team informed the meeting that the focus on any development initiative, was to improve the economic well-being of an area. In the same line these development should always

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consider the environmental well-being of the current population and the generation to come and thus a balance is attained between the two hence termed as sustainable development. The participants were enlightened about the IESIA; its purpose/objectives; legal framework including legislation and policies governing environment; the rights and role of community towards environment protection and management. They were informed that in Kenya, it is a requirement that every project/activity has to be environmentally friendly. Section 58 of Environmental Management and Coordination (Amendment) Act (EMCA), 2015 and Regulation 4 of Environmental Management and Coordination (Strategic Assessment, Integrated Impact Assessment and Audit) Regulations, 2018, indicates that no proponent shall implement a project that is likely to have a negative environmental impact; or for which an environmental impact assessment is required under the Act or these Regulations; unless an environmental impact assessment has been concluded and approved in accordance with these Regulations. Section 14 (1) of the regulations, an Integrated Environmental Impact Assessment study shall be conducted for all high-risk projects tabulated in the Second Schedule of the NEMA Act. In recognition of the above affirmative action by National Environment Management Authority (NEMA); IESIA study is conducted to assess anticipated impacts of the proposed development on its immediate neighbourhood, the natural environment, the socio-economic environment, the public health and safety in general. This therefore calls upon every person in Mochongoi to maintain the same as they undertake development activities. Maintenance of clean and good environment should not be one-time event but a continuous process throughout the project cycle. They were further informed that EMCA (Amendment) 2015 schedule II requires that IESIA study be conducted for the proposed degazettement of Ol Arabel Forest for Mochongoi Settlement Scheme and that community/ neighbours/ stakeholders must be involved while preparing the IESIA report and that it was mandatory to hold at least one baraza to give the community/ neighbours/stakeholders an opportunity to give their views with respect to the benefits; impacts both negative and positive in order to establish whether the project is economically viable, socially acceptable and environmentally friendly/sound.

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Min. 3/21/12/19: Community participation (open discussion, question and answers)

1. Kipkirui Kiptum (Mzee wa Mtaa; Tendenbei) Area resident for 24 years since 1995 He welcomed the degazettement process with open arms He informed that he has ¼ acre of land where he has planted 700 trees.

2. Julius Kibomo (Tendenbei Village) Area resident for 25 years since 1994 He inquired about the inclusion of Kapkiris Primary School as public utility. Benefits of the degazettement highlighted:  Collateral for loans from financial institutions  Encourage construction of permanent structures

3. Samuel Keitany (Mzee wa Mtaa; Kimoriot) Area resident for 26 years since 1993 He informed that Kapkiris Primary and Kabarak Primary Schools were left out in the mapping of public utilities. He pointed out that title deeds will enable acquire loans for development. He informed that the community has been sensitized on 10% tree cover.

4. Tarkok Tapnyebii Area resident for 24 years since 1995 She informed that the forest provides medicinal plants. She encouraged youth and the community in general to conserve the environment.

5. Isaac Chemobo (Council of Elders; Opinion Leader) Area resident for 21 years Informed that he has planted over 500 trees and he has harvested 200 for over KShs. 150,000. He has 1,000 coffee plants, 4 acres of grass producing 2,000 bales.

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His loan limit at the bank is KShs. 500,000 but with the title he can be in a position to access up to 2 Million. 6. Kipkemoi Arap Ruto Area resident for 24 years since 1995 He challenged the community to plant trees. He informed that he has planted over 400 trees himself. He encouraged the community to conserve the environment as an economic activity aside from development.

7. Moses Toroitich (Sitotue village) Area resident for 20 years He informed that he came to Mochongoi on 30th September, 1998 from Kiradich dam. At the time 20 people from Kiradich dam were allocated land. The issuance of title deeds will encourage increased development.

8. Amos Kipchirchir (Sitotue Village) Area resident for 23 years since 1996 He informed that Sinendet AIC had not been captured in the mapping of public utilities. He highlighted that title deeds will encourage security of tenure. He pointed out that article 40 of the constitution gives right to land ownership as part of the bill of rights. Land ownership will encourage business growth e.g. shops and hardware and development. The issuance of titles would provide a new frontier for agricultural productivity and employment. Both upstream catchment and downstream forests protection in Sitotue and Kibagenge would contribute to more water in the area. He pointed out that the community should be key in ensuring conservation of protected areas.

9. William Ng’etich (Tuyobei) Tuyobei has over 20 acres water catchment, 3 acres Tachasis water catchment and 40 acres Mosop/soyonin water catchment. The protected areas mapped by the M.N.R.E highlighted included: 207

452 – Sitotue 1266 – Water catchment (Kokwomoi) 463 – Sitotue 1514 – Mosop water catchment 826 – Tuyobei water point (5 acres) 1518 – Lake Baringo Catchment; Tachasis Village (over 50 acres) 879 – Soyonin afforestation (30 acres) 1572 – Tambach water catchment 890 – Kabei 1677 – Water catchment 1091 – National pipe and water conservation 1678 – Water catchment He requested the IESIA team to search for all other set aside protected areas within Blok III, II and I to ensure they are conserved. He encouraged the growing of macadamia, tea, coffee and avocadoes to help the community eradicate poverty and improve livelihoods. He also pointed out that the settlement scheme has potential for high altitude athletes.

10. Closing remarks The Chief Kimoriot thanked the participants for attending the meeting. He informed about the MCA‘s and MP‘s support towards the IESIA process and deliberations of the meeting. Isaac Chemobo encouraged the community to support the leaders and development agendas of the National and County Governments. The Chief encouraged the community to increase tree planting efforts towards the achievement of the 10% forest cover. The Assistant Chief thanked the people who participated in the IESIA study process.

Min. 4/21/12/19: AOB There being no other business the meeting was closed with a word of prayer by Kandie Chesire at 3:30pm

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A4 (d): Public Baraza (Block I)

PUBLIC BARAZA (BLOCK I) PUBLIC BARAZA MINUTES FOR INTEGRATED ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (IESIA) STUDY FOR MOCHONGOI SETTLEMENT SCHEME FOR BLOCK I HELD AT MOCHONGOI STAGE ON SATURDAY 4TH JANUARY, 2020 AT 1:00PM Present List of Participants attached. Agenda 1. Preliminary (meeting): Introduction. 2. Community awareness and sensitization on ESIA for the proposed Degazettement of Ol Arabel Forest for Mochongoi Settlement Scheme 3. Community participation (open discussion, question and answers) 4. A.O.B.

Min. 1/04/01/20: Preliminary (meeting): Introduction/Welcoming Remarks. The meeting was opened with a word of prayer from Rev. Wilson Cherewa at 1:00pm. The Chief Mochongoi location Mr. Kibon welcomed the participants. He briefed about the agenda of the meeting and informed that the IESIA process was launched on 22/11/2019, followed by the 12/12/2019 meeting where the public was informed that the public participation process would start as planned. He informed that public participation had already been completed for Block II and III. He welcomed Mochongoi Sub-location Assistant Chief Mr. Lobeles who welcomed participants to the meeting and encouraged them to feel part of the process. The Chief then welcomed Kapkechir Assistant Chief Mr. Stanley Chemitei who welcomed the participants and challenged them not to encroach into public utilities or catchment through settlement or farming. The chief briefed the participants about the mapping of public utilities and demarcation of the boundary. He informed that he was in charge of public utilities and the other team was dealing with the boundary.

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He thanked the community for cooperating with the IESIA team. He informed that Block I was the largest among all the three sites for the study. He welcomed the village elders (Kapnarok- 6 Villages, Kapkechir- 13 Villages, and Mochongoi-10 Villages) who introduced themselves and thanked them for availing themselves for the meeting. The chief informed the participants about the public utilities mapping and invited the public utilities team to inform them on the progress.

Min. 2/04/01/20: Community awareness and sensitization on ESIA for the proposed Degazettement of Ol Arabel Forest for Mochongoi Settlement Scheme. The IESIA team informed the meeting that the focus on any development initiative, was to improve the economic well-being of an area. In the same line these development should always consider the environmental well-being of the current population and the generation to come and thus a balance is attained between the two hence termed as sustainable development. The participants were enlightened about the IESIA; its purpose/objectives; legal framework including legislation and policies governing environment; the rights and role of community towards environment protection and management. They were informed that in Kenya, it is a requirement that every project/activity has to be environmentally friendly. Section 58 of Environmental Management and Coordination (Amendment) Act (EMCA), 2015 and Regulation 4 of Environmental Management and Coordination (Strategic Assessment, Integrated Impact Assessment and Audit) Regulations, 2018, indicates that no proponent shall implement a project that is likely to have a negative environmental impact; or for which an environmental impact assessment is required under the Act or these Regulations; unless an environmental impact assessment has been concluded and approved in accordance with these Regulations. Section 14 (1) of the regulations, an Integrated Environmental Impact Assessment study shall be conducted for all high-risk projects tabulated in the Second Schedule of the NEMA Act. In recognition of the above affirmative action by National Environment Management Authority (NEMA); IESIA study is conducted to assess anticipated impacts of the proposed development on its immediate neighbourhood, the natural environment, the socio-economic environment, the public health and safety in general. This therefore calls upon every person in Mochongoi to

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maintain the same as they undertake development activities. Maintenance of clean and good environment should not be one-time event but a continuous process throughout the project cycle. They were further informed that EMCA (Amendment) 2015 schedule II requires that IESIA study be conducted for the proposed degazettement of Ol Arabel Forest for Mochongoi Settlement Scheme and that community/ neighbours/ stakeholders must be involved while preparing the IESIA report and that it was mandatory to hold at least one baraza to give the community/ neighbours/stakeholders an opportunity to give their views with respect to the benefits; impacts both negative and positive in order to establish whether the project is economically viable, socially acceptable and environmentally friendly/sound.

The IESIA team also read out the inventory of public utilities as captured during documentary field work both existing and proposed.

Min. 3/04/01/20: Community participation (open discussion, question and answers) 1. Jackson Komen He requested for cemetery under public utilities. 2. Emmanuel Kipkoech He pointed out that Kipkandule Primary School was not captured in the public utilities inventory. He requested for inclusion.

3. Samuel Chepsat (Kapnarok) He said that understood the IESIA brief and the process would be beneficial through tenure security for;  Food sufficiency (Grain basket in Baringo)  Income for Baringo Community. He encouraged the community to plant trees and challenged them on this particularly. He pointed out the public utilities not captured; Keneroi Police Post, Keneroi Dispensary, Keneroi Secondary School, Keneroi Vocational and Training Institute, Keneroi Borehole and Keneroi Cattle Dip, Mochongoi Bible College with Mochongoi AIC.

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4. Amos Kimosop Karne (Kapkechir)

A resident of the area since birth He pointed out that Koitilil airstrip and Koitilil Community Land had not been captured in the public utilities.

5. Benjamin Kulei (Kokwenbei) A resident of the area since 1995 He pointed out the public utilities not captured: AIC Kokwenbei, Kokwenbei Full Gospel; Kokwenbei TTC and Kokwenbei Catholic Church.

6. Elijah Chelimo (Lomoiwe) He requested for a cemetery in public utilities 7. Joshua Kimosop He inquired about Kapkitambaa dam (already set aside) 8. Moses Chesaro (Kaptombes – Kapnarok) He informed about Kaptombes Public Land (Cemetery, Dispensary, Cattle Dip and Trading Centre) 9. Assistant Chief Lobeles He informed that Keneroi hosts critical rare tree species and encouraged the community to protect the forest, the catchment, watershed and the riparian zone. 10. Arap Chesang Takara He emphasized on Ol-Arabel forest protection. He pointed out that Karimotong Teacher‘s College had been left out. 11. William Tuitoek (AIC Mochongoi He informed AIC Mochongoi captured but the Bible Study is yet to be set aside. He informed that AIC Mochongoi has 10 acres (No. 06) and Bible College (1411) 12. Ezra Chemaina He requested for access road linking Boma side and Keneroi as part of public utilities (Kapkolongei & Kaptiritom)/Bomaside and Kaplomada He pointed out to proposed Kipkandule ECDE

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13. Closing remarks The IESIA team thanked the chiefs, Assistant Chiefs, Wazee wa Mtaa and all those who had assisted in the boundary demarcation and public utilities data collection. The chief thanked the participants for their contributions in the process. The former MCA informed that there were challenges during the initial process of IESIA and therefore encouraged the community to support it now that it had been launched on 22/11/2019. MCA Kipruto Kimosop He apologized for being late since he had attended the burial of a person who had been killed by an elephant. He informed that he was grateful to the former M.P, Kipchoim for the petition towards issuance of titles to the community members. He informed that the process of degazettement is a legal process. He thanked the CFA for the letter of invitation to the motion at Baringo County Assembly. He informed that the motion passed and budget allocated for the IESIA. He informed that after final IESIA the next process is N.F.C to confirm boundaries as in the process, next it will proceed either to the National Assembly or Senate. He informed that after the whole process the file in Kabarnet will be harmonized before title deeds are issued and informed that double allocation and other issues will be sorted out. Ol Arabel forest in Baringo County and managed by Mutitu Forest Station He requested the community to await allocation of all budget for 2020/2021 & 2021/2022 F.Y for roads. Min. 4/04/01/20: A.O.B. There being no other business to discuss the meeting was adjourned at 4:00pm.

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A4 (e): Meeting with Manager Ol Arabel Forest MEETING WITH MANAGER OL ARABEL FOREST (MUTITU FOREST STATION) MINUTES OF A MEETING FOR INTEGRATED ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (IESIA) STUDY FOR MOCHONGOI SETTLEMENT SCHEME WITH SENIOR FORESTER; MR. DAVID MUCHERU HELD AT OL-ARABEL FOREST STATION ON TUESDAY 7TH JANUARY, 2020 AT 11:00AM Present 1. Amos K. Kiptanui (IESIA Lead Expert) 2. Evans Koech (Secretary-Ol Arabel CFA) 3. David Mucheru (Senior Forester-Ol Arabel Forest Station) 4. Esther Maina (IESIA Team) Agenda 1. Brief by Secretary Ol Arabel CFA 2. Brief by IESIA Team 3. Comments/Opinion/Recommendation by the Senior Forester (Manager Ol Arabel Forest Station) 4. A.O.B.

Min. 1/07/01/20: Brief by Secretary Ol Arabel CFA The CFA secretary, Mr. Evans Koech briefed the senior forester on the petition to Parliament by the former MP Grace Kipchoim. He informed that an initial ESIA was done with heated engagement and the process had a lot of challenges which included:  Lack of cutline  Encroachment to forest and catchment area  No security of public utilities that had conflict of interest with politicians. He informed that the IESIA study is long overdue and part of the gazetted Ol-Arabel Forest is where Muchongoi settlement scheme is located. There has been several attempts to demarcate the boundary but hindered by issues of social livelihoods, the forest and water catchment. 232

He informed that the degazettement will ensure demarcation of the boundary. The encroachment into the forest is as a result of lack of boundary at the moment. The Ol-Arabel forest form part of wildlife collider and reserve (community land) under county government that is neither private nor public. Min. 2/07/01/20: Brief by IESIA Team The IESIA Team briefed the Senior Forester (Manager Ol Arabel Forest: Mutitu Station) about the IESIA study and the progress made so far including delineation of boundary/cutline between the forest and settlement scheme and inventory of public utilities. The forester was further informed about the three public barazas for block I, II and III that were held on 4/1/2020, 20/12/2019 and 21/12/2019 respectively. The Forester had earlier been briefed at Kamailel Primary about the ongoing IESIA during the tree planting at Tulwopsoo where 8,500 tree seedlings were planted in collaboration with Rift Valley Water Works Development Agency (RVWWDA) on 16th December 2019 School.

Min. 3/07/01/20: Comments/Opinion/Recommendation by the Senior Forester (Manager Ol Arabel Forest Station) He informed that before establishment of the settlement scheme, the forest and the station were intact. The original objective of the scheme should have finalized then including public utilities. The boundary will help address critical issues. The water catchment cannot exist without forest and no people without water. The original purpose of the settlement was to uplift livelihoods, conserve forest and the water catchment. He recommended a clear boundary to conserve forest and water catchment to help sustain the community. The 10% tree cover moratorium (No removal of timber and wood from the forest) The biggest challenge is unavailability of the boundary and hence if addressed it will deter encroachment into the forest and riparian zone. Min. 3/07/01/20: A.O.B There being no other business, the meeting was adjourned at 2:00pm.

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A4 (f): Meeting with In Charge of KWS Mutitu Station

MEETING WITH IN-CHARGE KWS MUTITU STATION MINUTES OF A MEETING FOR INTEGRATED ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (IESIA) STUDY FOR MOCHONGOI SETTLEMENT SCHEME WITH KWS HELD AT MUTITU STATION ON TUESDAY 7TH JANUARY, 2020 AT 2:30PM Present 1. Amos K. Kiptanui (IESIA Lead Expert) 2. Evans Koech (Secretary-Ol Arabel CFA) 3. Stephen Ruku (in charge of KWS Mutitu Outpost Station) 4. David Kuria (Staff KWS Mutitu Outpost Station) 5. Esther Maina (IESIA Team) Agenda 1. Brief by IESIA Team 2. Brief by Secretary Ol Arabel CFA 6. Comments/Opinion/Recommendation by Stephen Ruku (in charge of KWS Mutitu Outpost Station) 3. A.O.B. Min. 1/07/01/20: Brief by IESIA Team The IESIA Team briefed Stephen Ruku (in charge of KWS Mutitu Outpost Station) and David Kuria (Staff KWS Mutitu Outpost Station) about the IESIA study and the progress made so far including launching on 22/11/2019 by the Governor of Baringo County His Excellency Stanely Kiptis; panning meeting on 12/12/2019 during Jamhuri day at Kimoriot trading centre; delineation of boundary/cutline between the forest and settlement scheme and the inventory of public utilities. The KWS Staff were further informed about the three public barazas for block I, II and III that were held on 4/1/2020, 20/12/2019 and 21/12/2019 respectively. Min. 2/07/01/20: Brief by Secretary Ol Arabel CFA CFA secretary Mr. Evans Koech informed on the history of earlier attempts to conduct IESIA and degazettement of Ol Arabel Forest for Mochongoi Settlement Scheme. He informed about the IESIA process progress; the launching, planning, public participation and stakeholder

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engagement. He further informed about the deliverables including the boundary demarcation and the IESIA study report. Min. 3/07/01/20: Comments/Opinion/Recommendation by Stephen Ruku (in charge of KWS Mutitu Outpost Station) He informed that Mochongoi has plenty of natural resources and that human-wildlife conflict is as a result of encroachment into the forest which is their habitat. The degazettement and boundary demarcation will discourage encroachment into the forest and help protect wildlife corridors.

He highlighted the following challenges: The forest is no longer solid but in segments. Humans have settled in wildlife corridors and their habitats. Human wildlife conflict would arise when people go to fetch water from the forest. Irrigation of tomatoes along the river and spraying pollutes the water.

He informed that the ―Matiac‖ (leader of elephants) have knowledge regarding the corridors. He informed about the Elephant Corridors as follows: 1. Elephant corridor (route 1): Shamanic forest (within Marmanet)-Kitundaga forest (Tuyobei)- Kibagenge- Ng’enyilel- Kamailel-Keneroi-Kabuswo-Rimoi national Park 2. Elephant corridor (route 2): Ng’enyilel – Kong’asis-Londrim (long stream)-Lariak forest- Laikipia He informed that Tendenbei was initially a corridor to Lariak. Recommendation Reducing forest encroachment including charcoal burning and tree harvesting would help mitigate the problem of wild life human conflict. Defining the cutline would help better manage wildlife and reduce human-wildlife conflict. Authorities relevant should ensure strict enforcement of laws to ensure protection of the water catchment and the forest. He encouraged that the community should plant trees to 10% cover. The forest authorities should restrict logging in Kamailel, Ng‘enyilil and Kibagenge who have been rather uncooperative.

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Min. 4/07/01/20: A.O.B There being no other business to discuss, the meeting was adjourned at 3:30pm A4 (g): Meeting with Senior Warden-Baringo County

MEETING WITH SENIOR WARDEN -BARINGO COUNTY

MINUTES OF A MEETING FOR INTEGRATED ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (IESIA) STUDY FOR MOCHONGOI SETTLEMENT SCHEME WITH KWS SENIOR WARDEN HELD AT BARINGO COUNTY ON MONDAY 13TH JANUARY, 2020 AT 10:00PM Present 1. Amos K. Kiptanui (IESIA Lead Expert) 2. Peter Lekeren (senior Warden – Baringo County) 3. Esther Maina (IESIA Team) Agenda 1. Brief by IESIA Team 2. Comments/Opinion/Recommendation by Peter Lekeren (senior Warden – Baringo County) 3. A.O.B. Min. 1/13/01/20: Brief by IESIA Team The IESIA Team Leader Mr. Amos Kiptanui briefed Peter Lekeren (senior Warden – Baringo County) about the IESIA study and the progress made so far including launching on 22/11/2019 by the Governor of Baringo County His Excellency Stanely Kiptis; panning meeting on 12/12/2019 during Jamhuri day at Kimoriot trading centre; delineation of boundary/cutline between the forest and settlement scheme and the inventory of public utilities. The KWS Staff were further informed about the three public barazas for block I, II and III that were held on 4/1/2020, 20/12/2019 and 21/12/2019 respectively. Min. 2/13/01/20: Comments/Opinion/Recommendation by Peter Lekeren (Senior Warden – Baringo County) Peter Lekeren (Senior Warden – Baringo County) informed that if the wildlife corridors were protected then KWS will have no reservations with the degazettement. He informed that during March – April every year elephants cross to Kerio Valley to get water. He said that it was necessary to fence the settlement scheme with electric fence. He said that there is need respect the wildlife corridors and that the county need to appreciate wildlife. He reiterated the need for mode of insurance for human-wildlife conflict. He requested to prepare and give a brief on wildlife corridors between Ol-Arabel forest, Laikipia Conservancy, Lariak forest, Marmanet and Rimoi. 236

Min. 4/13/01/20: A.O.B There being no other business to discuss, the meeting was adjourned at 11:00pm A4 (h): Presentation of Draft IESIA Study Report to Stakeholders DRAFT REPORT PRESENTATION TO STAKEHOLDERS

MINUTES FOR PRESENTATION OF DRAFT IESIA STUDY REPORT FOR DEGAZZETTEMENT OF OL-ARABEL FOREST FOR MOCHONGOI SETTLEMENT SCHEME AT KENYA SCHOOL OF GOVERNMENT (KSG) BARINGO ON 18TH NOVEMBER, 2020 AT 9:00AM Present List of Participants attached. Agenda 1. Preliminary: Introduction. 2. Presentation of Draft IESIA study Report to stakeholders 3. Plenary (Questions, Answers, Opinions, Comments, Suggestions, Recommendations) 4. A.O.B. Min.1/18/11/20: Preliminary The meeting was started with a prayer followed by introductions from Director of Lands, Mr. Kibor who welcomed Henry E. Nalipan (Director Survey) to read the CO‘s speech. The Director gave a brief on draft IESIA study on behalf of the CO Land, Housing and Urban Development.

CEC Lands The CEC lands was welcomed County Director Lands to address the participants of the meeting. The CEC Lands welcomed the former CEC Lands (Mr. Kipkoros) to address the meeting. He informed about the advice from the CS lands on the IESIA process and the challenges faced with the people of Mochongoi Settlement scheme when convincing them to allow the county government start the IESIA process. The CEC gave an apology of MCA Mochongoi Ward who had attended C.A.F in Nairobi.

CO Environment (Eng. Ruto) CO Environment (Eng. Ruto) was concerned about the mitigation measures and particularly protection of Ol-Arabel River that drains into Lake Baringo and Weseges River that drains into Lake Bogoria.

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MCA Representative The Representative of MCA Mochongoi Ward gave a brief on the engagement of the public during the IESIA process

Min.2/18/11/20: Presentation of Draft IESIA study Report to stakeholders The Consultancy team presented the draft Integrated Environment and Social Impact Assessment (IESIA) study report to stakeholders. The presentation included public utilities (existing and proposed); maps of Mochongoi settlement scheme (surveyed, settled and proposed boundary for degazettement); project alternatives; mitigation measures to adverse effects (immediate and long term); Comprehensive Integrated Environment and Social Management Plan (CIESMP) among others as contained in the draft report.

Min.3/18/11/20: Plenary (Questions, Answers, Opinions, Comments, Suggestions, Recommendations)

Governor (H.E Hon. Stanley Kiptis) His Excellency the governor (Baringo County) gave welcoming remarks and informed that the IESIA study will assist the government in the process degazettement of Ol Arabel Forest for Mochongoi Settlement Scheme and addressing the issues raised in the report. He encouraged the participants to support the process. He noted that there were many religious facilities mainly churches in Mochongoi settlement scheme. He challenged the people of Mochongoi to increase forest cover from 15.3% to 50% assisted by both county and national governments. He noticed that there were few or no ECDEs in Mochongoi. He informed that population will increase continuously and therefore there is need to manage resources to sustainably support the population. He informed that the report will assist on projection of water utility, development and utilization of resources. He challenged on the need to have tree nurseries and recreational parks in Mochongoi.

Deputy Governor He informed that the decision made concerning the degazettement of Ol Arabel Forest for Mochongoi Settlement Scheme will have an impact on the people, the county and national government. He encouraged the participants to consider and contribute in the best interests of the people of Mochongoi. 238

Former CEC Lands (Kipkoros) He informed that the prayer of the people of Mochongoi Settlement Scheme is degazettement of Ol Arabel Forest for the settlement scheme. CEC Health She informed that the desire of the county government of Baringo is for the people of Mochongoi settlement to get land ownership documents and therefore the degazettement option is the best alternative. CO Environment He appreciated the work done by the consultant to produce the report. He advised on the need to produce slope maps for the settlement and show the percentage of people settling along slope per block. CO ICT (Ndirangu) He emphasized on the need to consider all stakeholders and their role in the project e.g ICT where the consultant informed that they have a stake in documenting, disseminating and informing the public. KWS He noted that the recommendations are practicable. He requested the people to address issues raised and consider connectivity of wildlife. KFS (Mucheru) He thanked the consultant for a good report. He informed that the area is rich in flora and fauna have a right of existence. He informed that the final decision will be made by the CCF. Environment Department (Jennifer) She highlighted on the need for a wider public participation. She also informed on the need to manage and monitor the project‘s sustainability against existing county policies, spatial plan on land use and the county‘s strategic management plan. Recommendations She appreciated the work done by the IESIA team and that there was the need to produce a public utilities data map and mapping of Water sources (streams/rivers/springs). She recommended the formation of a community monitoring committee to work with stakeholders. She finally informed that the County is ready to work with all other stakeholders to for the project‘s sustainability. 239

Endorois Welfare Council (EWC) CEO (Richard) He thanked the ESIA team for the report. He highlighted on the need to prevent destruction of biodiversity by protecting indigenous trees and steep slopes. EWC Chairman (Eric Kimalit) He reiterated the involvement of stakeholders. He challenged residents of Mochongoi to plant tree citing Central Kenya as an exemplar. He reiterated on ensuring sustainability. He informed that wetlands should be made public lands. He also highlighted on the need for a wider public participation. He advised that the views of Endorois community need to be incorporated in the report so that they do not antagonize the IESIA process. Kaitany (Pastor) He informed that it is no longer sustainable to evict the residents of Mochongoi. Director Survey (Nalipan) He informed that the report is about degazettement of the forest for settlement scheme. He inquired if the 10,000 ha was only settlement or forest inclusive. He informed that GIS would help depict encroachment beyond surveyed land. Secretary CFA (Evans Koech) He appreciated the report. He informed that he was involved and participated in the IESIA process. He informed that to the best of his knowledge that the report is okay. He informed that there has been continuous encroachment into the forest and hence the need for degazettement to protect the remaining forest. He highlighted the need to increase conservation efforts since climate change is real. He informed that there is insufficient staff to manage forests and catchment areas. He also highlighted on the need to sensitize the community on conservation.

Min.4/18/11/20: A.O.B There being no other business to discuss the meeting was adjourned at 2:30pm. The participants were welcomed for luncheon and that they can leave at their own pleasure.

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A4 (i): Presentation of Draft IESIA Study Report to Community (Block III: Kimoriot)

DRAFT REPORT PRESENTATION TO COMMUNITY (BLOCK III: KIMORIOT MINUTES FOR PRESENTATION OF DRAFT IESIA STUDY REPORT FOR DEGAZZETTEMENT OF OL-ARABEL FOREST FOR MOCHONGOI SETTLEMENT SCHEME AT KIMORIOT TRADING CENTRE (BLOCK III) ON 16TH DECEMBER 2020 AT 12:25PM Present

List of Participants attached. Agenda 1. Preliminary: Introduction. 2. Presentation of Draft IESIA study Report to community (Block III: Kimoriot) 3. Plenary (Questions, Answers, Opinions, Comments, Suggestions, Recommendations) 4. A.O.B. Min.1/16/12/20: Preliminary The meeting was opened with a prayer by Reverend Rotich Kendagor at 12:25PM. Assistant Chief Kimoriot Sub Location welcomed the participants. Mzee Arap Bitok (Elder) He welcomed the participants to Kimoriot. Chief Kimoriot, Kimoriot Location (Mr. Soi) He welcomed the participants to the meeting and informed that the people were eagerly waiting for presentation of the draft report. He informed that there are 13 schools and over 20,000 people in Kimoriot. He informed that the people of Kimoriot are requesting for administrative division because of the high population. Ward Admin (Mr. Saning’o) He welcomed the participants and informed that the process of IESIA will enable the people of Mochongoi to obtain title deeds. He informed that title deeds issuance takes time and there is need for patience. Sub-County Ward Administrator (Mr. Juma) She welcomed the participants and encouraged the community to listen keenly to the presentation of the draft and give their opinion.

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Henry Nalipan (Director: Survey) He informed that the CEC and the CO were engaged in other activities and had wished to be part of the meeting. He introduced the other staff who accompanied him. MCA (Hon. Kipruto Kimosop) He welcomed the participants and thanked the community for attending the meeting. He informed that he has been working closely with the County and National Administration. He thanked the participants for attending the meeting in large numbers despite their busy schedules. He informed that the issuance of title deeds requires IESIA and a defined cutline. Nominated MCA (Francis Kabai) He thanked the participants for availing themselves for the meeting. He informed that the creation of Kimoriot Division had been recommended and gazetted however a few things were being worked on. The administrative sub Locations proposed were Tuyobei Sub-Location, Kibagenge Sub-Location Kamailel Location and Ng‘enyilel Sub-Location based on population of Mochongoi for 2019.

Min.2/16/12/20: Presentation of Draft IESIA Study Report to Community (Block III: Kimoriot) The Consultancy team presented the draft Integrated Environment and Social Impact Assessment (IESIA) study report to Block III (Kimoriot Community). The presentation included public utilities (existing and proposed); maps of Mochongoi settlement scheme (surveyed, settled and proposed boundary for degazettement); project alternatives; mitigation measures to adverse effects (immediate and long term); Comprehensive Integrated Environment and Social Management Plan (CIESMP) among others as contained in the draft report.

Min.3/16/12/20: Plenary (Questions, Answers, Opinions, Comments, Suggestions, Recommendations) Isaac Chemobo He was happy and thanked the Consultant and leadership for the report Jonah Arap Kelwon He also thanked the local leadership for the progress of the ESIA process. Daniel Koech Inquired about public utilities including Kapkelelwa Centre, Tambach Secondary and Tambach playing ground

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Julius Bichii Thanked the consultant and local leadership for the progress in the IESIA report. John Chesuma He informed of the proposed Kokwomoi Trading Centre. He inquired about the gazettement of the proposed sub-location, location and division. Nguluka Paul Inquired about public utilities including Kapkures primary, Kapkures ECDE, proposed Kimoriot Slaughterhouse and Kaptirim Water point/stream. Samuel Kaitany He inquired about public utilities including Kapindaram stream and proposed Kabarak Primary School. Zakayo Kandie He inquired about the following public utilities: Soyonin Spring and proposed Soyonin Athlete Camp, proposed AIC Kapchorwa, Kimoriot Cattle Dip, Kamung‘ei Milk Coolant, Kapkures Full Gospel Church, Kimoriot Cereal Store and Kimoriot Borehole. Other people who spoke in support of the progress made so far with respect to IESIA study report included Jonathan Toroitich and Francis Cheruiyot

Min.4/16/12/20: A.O.B Closing Remarks 1. Chesaro (Social Protection) He informed that the M.P gave him the responsibility to inform the meeting that he was waiting for the report 2. Senior Chief He thanked the participants for attending the meeting 3. Nominated MCA He challenged the community to enroll for the TTI Adjournment There being no other business, the meeting was closed with a prayer by Rev. Rotich Kendagor from Full Gospel Kimoriot at 4:15pm.

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A4 (j): Presentation of Draft IESIA Study Report to Community (Block II: Kamailel)

DRAFT REPORT PRESENTATION TO COMMUNITY (BLOCK II: KAMAILEL MINUTES FOR PRESENTATION OF DRAFT IESIA STUDY REPORT FOR DEGAZZETTEMENT OF OL-ARABEL FOREST FOR MOCHONGOI SETTLEMENT SCHEME AT KONG’ASIS TRADING CENTRE (ASS. CHIEF OFFICE) BLOCK II ON 17TH DECEMBER 2020 AT 12:30PM Present

List of Participants attached. Agenda 1. Preliminary: Introduction. 2. Presentation of Draft IESIA study Report to community (Block II: Kamailel) 3. Plenary (Questions, Answers, Opinions, Comments, Suggestions, Recommendations) 4. A.O.B. Min.1/17/12/20: Preliminary The meeting was opened with a prayer by Fanuel Kong‘a. The area chief welcomed the participants and invited Mochongoi TTI staff member to address the meeting. He then welcomed village elder Joshua Limo to address the meeting. He thanked the area MCA and the representatives from Department of Lands, Housing and Urban Development. Area Chief (Mr. Soi) He welcomed the participants. He informed that Kamailel residents have been waiting for the report. He also informed that the residents are livestock keepers and crop farmers. Ward Admin (Saning’o) He informed that he is the acting Ward Admin for Mochongoi. He also informed that the purpose of the meeting was presentation of the ESIA draft report. He informed about several bills presented by the MCA at the County Assembly of Baringo. Sub-County Administrator (Juma) She thanked the participants for attending the meeting. She informed about the ESIA process and that they were representing the governor and the county government. Director of Survey (Henry E. Nalipan) He introduced the team (Kaitany and Bowen) that had accompanied him from Land adjudication. He informed that IESIA presentation started in Kabarnet with key government and institution stakeholders.

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MCA (Mochongoi Ward) He thanked the participants and apologized for delay in starting the meeting. He informed about the process of degazettement of forest for settlement as per Forest Conservation & Management Act of 2016.

Min.2/17/12/20: Presentation of Draft IESIA study Report to Community (Block II: Kamailel) The Consultancy team presented the draft Integrated Environment and Social Impact Assessment (IESIA) study report to Block II (Kamailel Community). The presentation included public utilities (existing and proposed); maps of Mochongoi settlement scheme (surveyed, settled and proposed boundary for degazettement); project alternatives; mitigation measures to adverse effects (immediate and long term); Comprehensive Integrated Environment and Social Management Plan (CIESMP) among others as contained in the draft report.

Min.3/17/12/20: Plenary (Questions, Answers, Opinions, Comments, Suggestions, Recommendations) Charles Kemei He thanked the MCA and inquired how long it could take to acquire the title deeds. He inquired about public utilities including Ngetmoi Primary and Ngenyilel Dam. Vincent Kipkorir He inquired about Kapkoros Home Boys Stadium public utility. He also inquired if a soft copy of the report could be provided to youth for perusal. Miriam Molok She proposed the following public utilities: Tulwopsoo SDA, Tulwopsoo Police Station and Tulwopsoo Cereal Centre Charles Barkepo He inquired about Ng‘enyilel Spring (Kong tap bek) Samuel Katheiya (Chairman- Nyumba Kumi Kamailel) He proposed about the inclusion of a University and Kamailel School of People with disabilities. John Arap Sambu He emphasized on protection of Ng‘enyilel riparian land and proposed additional public utilities: Bible College and Kaplamai Catholic Church.

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Min.4/17/12/20: A.O.B Closing Remarks 1. Sub-County Administrator She informed about the public notice from the county government notifying of waiver of land rates from 10th December 2020 to 11th January 2021 2. Assistant Chief (Wendot) He thanked the residents for availing themselves for the presentation of the draft report. 3. Chief Soi He acknowledged local leaders for their efforts and thanked the people of Kamailel for attending and participating in the presentation of the draft report as well as during the earlier meetings. Adjournment There being no other business the meeting was adjourned with a prayer from Fanuel Kong‘a at 4:30pm.

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A4 (k): Presentation of Draft IESIA Study Report to Community (Block I: Mochongoi)

DRAFT REPORT PRESENTATION TO COMMUNITY (BLOCK I: MOCHONGOI MINUTES FOR PRESENTATION OF DRAFT IESIA STUDY REPORT FOR DEGAZZETTEMENT OF OL-ARABEL FOREST FOR MOCHONGOI SETTLEMENT SCHEME AT KABEL STAGE BLOCK I ON 18TH DECEMBER 2020 AT 11:45AM Present

List of Participants attached. Agenda 1. Preliminary: Introduction. 2. Presentation of Draft IESIA study Report to community (Block II: Kamailel) 3. Plenary (Questions, Answers, Opinions, Comments, Suggestions, Recommendations) 4. A.O.B. Min.1/18/12/20: Preliminary The meeting was opened with a prayer from Simon Kiplagat at 11:45am. The area Chief Mr. Kibon welcomed the participants and briefed on the process that has taken place since the launching of the project on 22nd November, 2019 to date. Komen Kiptuikeny (Elder) He inquired about the reserved section of Mochongoi Settlement Scheme. Assistant Chief (Lopeles) He informed that the consultant did his work and had promised to present the draft report to the community for Block I today. He welcomed the participants. Ward Admin (Levis Saning’o) He informed that he is the acting Ward Admin for Mochongoi Ward. He informed that similar meetings had taken place for Block III on 16th December, 2020 and Block II on 17th December, 2020 where he was involved and actively participated. Sub-County Administrator (Hellen Juma) She informed that the report is the key for issuance of title deeds. She encouraged participants to embrace the report, listen to the presentation and give their opinions. Director Survey (Henry E. Nalipan) He informed that similar meetings taken place for Block III and Block II. He informed that after IESIA process is done and degazettement is approved, detailed survey of Mochongoi Settlement

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scheme will follow. He then introduced the team accompanying him from land adjudication (Bowen and Kaitany). MCA (Hon. Kipruto Kimosop) He welcomed the leaders present, the lead consultant and the community. He informed about the IESIA process emphasizing that the ultimate objective was issuance of titles. He informed that before degazettement, there are two major processes including IESIA study report and cadastral map for cutline done by KFS before submission to parliament. He advised the consultant to capture the reserve wishes of the residents. CO- Department of Lands, Housing & Urban Development She thanked the participants for attending the meeting. She then briefed about the IESIA process.

Min.2/18/12/20: Presentation of Draft IESIA Study Report to Community (Block I: Mochongoi) The Consultancy team presented the draft Integrated Environment and Social Impact Assessment (IESIA) study report to Block I (Mochongoi Community). The presentation included public utilities (existing and proposed); maps of Mochongoi settlement scheme (surveyed, settled and proposed boundary for degazettement); project alternatives; mitigation measures to adverse effects (immediate and long term); Comprehensive Integrated Environment and Social Management Plan (CIESMP) among others as contained in the draft report.

Min.3/18/12/20: Plenary (Questions, Answers, Opinions, Comments, Suggestions, Recommendations) Rev. Stephen Cheserem He inquired about the proposed public utilities including Full Gospel Churches of Kenya Training College and Koitilil Centre. Jackson Tarus He inquired if the 10, 056 ha indicated are farms only or includes community forests. He also inquired about Manuwari Pre-School public utility. Chepsoi Patrick He requested that every step of the process to be open and transparent. He inquired about proposed Keneroi Prison public utility He informed that the Pyrethrum land needs to be changed to Agricultural Training Centre.

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He inquired about the following public utilities: Ndorote Dam, Ngarie Water Catchment, Sokee Water Tank, Keneroi Borehole, proposed Kapnarok Secondary School. Benjamin Tunai (Teacher) He requested and recommended for Solid Waste Disposal Unit in Kabel, Mochongoi Cereal Store, proposed cemetery, proposed dispensary, Lolienga (Kapnarok Dam), Kabel dam, F.G.C.K Kapnarok Samuel Chepsat He encouraged the community to set aside differences that would derail the process. He emphasized that the reserve land issue needed to be sorted out as soon as possible. Rev. Joshua Chepsergon He encouraged the community to support the process by doing the right thing always. Nicholas Cherono (Youth) He informed that the youth were in support of the process. He also informed that the issue of the reserve land should be sorted out as soon as possible. He requested for Kaptorokwo Teacher‘s Training College. He thanked the County leadership for their support throughout the process and requested the MCA to support the process till the end. He also requested the community to protect indigenous forests for medicinal purposes. Isaac Rerimoi He inquired about public utilities including College, Cemetery and Chief‘s Camp at Kokwenbei. Changole He also requested for separation of the reserve from the settlement scheme because the reserve is not part of Ol Arabel Forest.

Min.4/18/12/20: A.O.B Closing Remarks 1. Hellen Juma (Sub-County Administrator) The SCA informed that the County government has waived interests on land rates with effect from 10th December, 2020 to 11th January, 2021 2. CO- Land Housing and Urban Development She informed that IESIA was requested by the Ministry as a prerequisite for the degazettement. Adjournment There being no other business the meeting was closed with a prayer from Rev. Simon Kiplagat at 4pm.

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ANNEX A5: PUBLIC UTILITIES A5 (a): Block I Public Utilities

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A5 (b): Block II Public Utilities

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A5 (c): Block III Public Utilities

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ANNEX A6: SAMPLE PHOTOS

Sample Photos #1-6: During launching of IESIA Study at Kabel Trading Centre on 22/11/2019

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Sample Photo #7-10: Mobilization and Planning Baraza at Kimoriot Trading Centre on 12/12/2019

Sample Photo #11: Planning meeting with Consultancy Team; ACC; MCA; Chiefs and Assistant Chiefs at Kimoriot Primary School on 12/12/2019 306

Sample Photo # 12-15: During Field Work Activities with Chief, Wazee wa Mitaa, Women and Youth Representative

Sample Photo # 16-17: Maize Plantation for Food and Security and Commercial Purposes

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Sample Photo # 18-19: Wheat Plantation for Commercial Purposes

Sample Photo # 20-21: Indigenous Forest along the Cut Line

Sample Photo # 22-23: Water Ways/Riparian

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Sample Photo # 24-26: Ngenymoi ECDE & Primary School Sample Photo # 27: Children Herding Sheep

Sample Photo #28-29: Public (Baraza Block II) at Kongasis Chief’s Office on 20/12/2019

Sample Photo #30-31: Public (Baraza Block III) at Kimoriot Trading Centre on 21/12/2019

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Sample Photo #32-33: Public (Baraza Block I) at Stage in Kabel Trading Centre on 4/1/2020

Sample Photos #34-35: Presentation of Draft IESIA study Report to Stakeholders at Kenya School of Government (KSG) Kabarnet on 18/11/2020

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Sample Photos #36-37: Presentation of Draft IESIA study Report to Community (Block III) at Kimoriot Trading Centre on 16/12/2020

Sample Photos #38-39: Presentation of Draft IESIA study Report to Community (Block II) at Kongasis Chief’s Office on 17/12/2020

Sample Photos #40-41: Presentation of Draft IESIA study Report to Community (Block I) at Stage in Kabel Trading Centre on 18/12/2020 311

ANNEX A7: QUESTIONNAIRES; MAPS AND OTHER DOCUMENTS

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ESIA 1878 Mochongoi Molhud BCG SR 2275 (2024)

FAQs

What is the ESIA process in Kenya? ›

“Environmental and Social Impact Assessment (ESIA) Study” means a systematic study conducted to determine whether or not a project will have any adverse impacts on the environment as stipulated in section 58 of EMCA, 1999 and Regulations 11 to 17 of the Environmental (Impact Assessment and Audit) Regulations, 2003.

What is SPR for Nema? ›

Summary Project Report (SPR)

What is the environmental impact assessment report? ›

EIA is a tool used to assess the positive and negative environmental, economic, and social impacts of a project. This is used to predict the environmental impacts of a project in the pre-planning stage itself so that decisions can be taken to reduce the adverse impacts.

What is the EIA of Kenya? ›

In Kenya, environmental impact assessment (EIA) has been used to ensure that environmental management is integrated into project planning and decision-making with a view of achieving ecologically sustainable development.

What is the purpose of the ESIA? ›

The purpose of the ESIA is to assess and predict potential adverse social and environmental impacts and to develop suitable mitigation measures, which are documented in an Environmental and Social Management Plan (ESMP).

What are the procedures for ESIA? ›

The process involved in Environmental & Social Impact Assessment
  • Identifying issues for EIA consideration.
  • Ensuring the appropriateness of EIA.
  • Providing the study team with clarity on alternatives and impact assessment levels.
  • Defining evaluation methods.
  • Identifying involved parties.

What does SPR stand for in running? ›

HSR, high-speed running; SPR, sprint running; Dec, deceleration; Acc, acceleration.

What is the summary of NEMA? ›

This Act aims to prevent pollution and ecological degradation, and ensure sustainable development by providing for air quality measures, norms and standards, management and control by all spheres of government.

What is the SPR in EIA? ›

A Summary Project Report shall outline the following: The nature of the project supported by design and plan drawn to scale and signed by an engineer; The location of the project including —

What triggers an environmental assessment? ›

The Environmental Assessment Review Process

Preparation of a draft Environmental Assessment (EA) may be required by HRSA if the grantee is undertaking new construction or expansion of an existing facility, or is engaging in extensive alteration and renovation.

What is the most pressing environmental problem? ›

Climate Change

It's a key contributor towards the melting of the polar ice caps and shrinking glaciers at the poles, as well as rising ocean levels and increased crop failures, all of which have a detrimental impact on the overall quality of human life.

Is environmental impact assessment mandatory? ›

EIA has now been made mandatory under the Environmental (Protection Act, 1986 for 29 categories of developmental activities involving investments of Rs. 50 crores and above.

Who funds the EIA? ›

The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) receives funding through an annual appropriation from Congress.

Who gives the EIA report? ›

The EIA report is compiled by the project team and its associated consultants, according to the TOR identified during the Scoping stage. The EIA report is compiled by the project team and its associated consultants, according to the TOR identified during the Scoping stage.

What is EIA used for? ›

Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a tool used to assess the significant effects of a project or development proposal on the environment.

What are the steps of strategic environmental assessment? ›

SEA Process has been itemized by the following nine steps.
  • Preliminary activities and decision of Terms of References (TOR)
  • Scoping.
  • Study of baseline data.
  • Strategic environmental assessment and evaluation.
  • Evaluation of alternative measures.
  • Assessment of alternative measures.

How much does the environmental impact assessment cost in Kenya? ›

Environmental Impact Assessment License: 0.1% of the total cost of the project to a minimum of KSh. 10, 000 with no upper capping. Processing and monitoring of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) reports: Kshs. 1,000,000.

What is the process of social impact assessment? ›

Social impact assessment (SIA) is a process for the identification, analysis, assessment, management and monitoring of the potential social impacts of a project, both positive and negative.

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